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2012 | 14 | 4 | 1-6

Article title

The utilization possibility of waste lignite as a raw material in the process of obtaining humic acids preparations


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In the light of environmental law utilization lignite waste in non-energy sectors of the economy is a rational way to manage them. Lignite due to the lower degree of coalification and calorific value as well as a high content of humic substances becomes a valuable component of fertilizer. The paper presents the possibility of using lignite waste as a raw material in the process of obtaining humic acids with 0.1 M NaOH. The idea of the process combines production, environmental and economic purposes. After the extraction process of humic acids and considering the possibility of using waste formed during the process, were carried out a number of studies to assist in choosing the best solution to its management.










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1 - 12 - 2012
12 - 01 - 2013


  • Wrocław University of Technology, Chemistry Department, Intitute of Inorganic Technology and Mineral Fertilizers, ul. Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-372 Wrocław, Poland
  • Wrocław University of Technology, Chemistry Department, Intitute of Inorganic Technology and Mineral Fertilizers, ul. Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-372 Wrocław, Poland


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  • 2. Regulation of the Minister of the Environment of 27 September 2001 on the catalogue of waste (J. of L. 112, item 1206) (in Polish).
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  • 6. Hoffmann, K. & Hoffmann, J. (2007). The utilization of peat, lignite and industrial wastes in the production of mineral-organic fertilizers, Am. J. Agric. Biol. Sci., 2/4, 254-259. http://www.scipub.org/scipub/journals.php. DOI: 10.3844/ ajabssp.2007.254.259.[Crossref]
  • 7. Chudek, M., Hycnar, J., Janiczek, S. & Plewa, F. (1999). Brown coal - utilization of accompanying raw materials and energetic waste, Wyd. Politechniki Śląskiej, Gliwice (in Polish).
  • 8. Kalembasa, S. & Tengler, S. (2004). The role of lignite in the fertilization and environmental protection, Monografie nr 52, Wyd. Akademii Podlaskiej, Siedlce (in Polish).
  • 9. Maciejewska, A. (1998). Lignite as a source of organic matter and its influence on soil properties, Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Warszawskiej, Warszawa (in Polish).
  • 10. Bereśniewicz, A. & Nowosielski, O. (1976). The possibility of agricultural use of lignite, Zesz. Probl. Post. Nauk Rol., 1, 69-84 (in Polish).
  • 11. Nowosielski, O. (1995). Lignite as a base and fertilizer and raw material for production of bases and fertilizers. Węg. Brunat., 4, 87-92 (in Polish).
  • 12. Maciejewska, A. & Kwiatkowska, J. (2002). The use of preparations from lignite to management of post-mining land, Acta Agroph., 73, 243-250 (in Polish).
  • 13. Nowak, J. & Kudełko, J. (2008). The use of lignite in terms of application manufacturing technology of other energy carriers, Gosp. Sur. Min., 24/4, 259-271 (in Polish).
  • 14. Kasiński, J., Mazurek, S. & Piwocki, M. (2006). Evaluation and ranking of lignite deposits in Poland. Państwowy Instytut Geologiczny, Warszawa (in Polish).
  • 15. Kasztelewicz Z. (2008). Lignite resources in Poland and the prospects for its use, Polit. Energ., 11/1, 181-200 (in Polish).
  • 16. Maciejewska, A. (1998). Directions for further research on the use of lignite in agriculture and environmental protection, Zesz. Probl. Post. Nauk Rol., 455, 223-232 (in Polish).
  • 17. Grzelak, A. (1993). Utilization possibilities of lignite and accompanying raw materials in agriculture and ecology, Gór. Odkryw. XXXV, 3-4, 51-65 (in Polish).
  • 18. Brożyna, M., Rosik-Dulewska, Cz., Dulewski, J. & Król, R. (1999). Technical and legal aspects of fly-ash utilization in coal mines in Poland. Proccedings of the International Symposium on Beneficiation, Aglomeration and Environment (ISBAN-99). Bhubaneswar January, 411-416.
  • 19. Mazur, T., Wojtas, A. & Mazur, Z. (1998). Agricultural value of mineral-organic fertilizers produced on the basis of lignite, Zesz. Probl. Post. Nauk Rol., 455, 141-147 (in Polish).
  • 20. Hoffmann, K. & Huculak-Mączka, M., (2011). Evaluation of sorption properties of humic acids as a factor in determining the possibility of their use for fertilizer purpose, Przem. Chem., 90/5, 792-795 (in Polish).
  • 21. Stevenson, F., J. (1994). Humus chemistry. Genesis, composition, reactions, John Wiley&Sons, New York.
  • 22. Huculak-Mączka, M., Hoffmann, K., Skut, J. & Hoffmann J. (2010). Evaluation of humic substances content in selected raw materials and wastes, Proc. ECOpole, 4/2, 383-387 (in Polish).
  • 23. Huculak-Mączka, M., Hoffmann, K. & Hoffmann, J. (2009). The use of selected analytical methods to evaluate the the organic matter content in the fertilizer components, Zesz. Probl. Post. Nauk Rol., 537, 145-151 (in Polish).
  • 24. Hoffmann, J. & Hoffmann, K. (2003). Sustainable development in production of fertilizers, Przem. Chem., 82/8-9, 837-939 (in Polish).
  • 25. Hoffmann, K., Popławski, D., Huculak-Mączka, M. & Hoffmann, J. (2010). Influence of the fineness on efficiency of obtaining humic acids from lignite, Proc. ECOpole, 4/2, 377-381 (in Polish).
  • 26. Huculak-Mączka, M., Hoffmann, K. & Hoffmann, J. (2010). Research on the influence of chemical agents on the properties of selected humic substances, Przem. Chem., 89/4, 396-399 (in Polish).
  • 27. Polish Standard PN-Z-15011-3:2001.
  • 28. Polish Standard PN-88/C-87105.
  • 29. Polish Standard PN-Z-15011-3:2001.
  • 30. Polish Standard a PN-Z-93/C-87085.
  • 31. Polish Standard PN-80/G-04511.
  • 32. Polish Standard PN-80/G-04512.
  • 33. Polish Standard PN-81/G-4513.

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