Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2012 | 14 | 3 | 54-58

Article title

From sewage sludge ash to calcium phosphate fertilizers


Title variants

Languages of publication



Our work presents the results of the research on the utilization of ashes after sewage sludge combustion comprising phosphorus recovery in the form of useful products. The investigations were divided into three parts: selecting the combustion parameters of sewage sludge, examining ash leaching with mineral acids (nitric and phosphoric) to high phosphorus selectivity assuring a low content of iron and heavy metals in the extracted solutions and precipitation of CaHPO4 .2H2O. Suitable temperature of a sewage sludge combustion enables selective extraction of phosphorus compounds from ash because of hematite phase forming, insoluble in mineral acids. The extracts from phosphoric acid leaching, where the extraction of phosphorus compounds was 96.1%, have very good properties for its further use as the initial solution for CaHPO4 .2H2O with 6% lime milk. The obtained product is characterized by high purity and phosphorus availability compatible even with the feed phosphate standard.









Physical description


1 - 10 - 2012
31 - 10 - 2012


  • Institute of Chemistry and Inorganic Technology, Cracow University of Technology, ul. Warszawska 24, 31-155 Kraków, Poland
  • Institute of Chemistry and Inorganic Technology, Cracow University of Technology, ul. Warszawska 24, 31-155 Kraków, Poland
  • Institute of Chemistry and Inorganic Technology, Cracow University of Technology, ul. Warszawska 24, 31-155 Kraków, Poland


  • 1. Morse, G.K., Lester, J.N. & Perry, R. (1993). The economicand environmental impact of phosphorus removal from wastewaterin the European Community. Selpher Publications, London.
  • 2. Jasinski, S.M. (2010). U.S. Geological Survey, MineralCommodity Summaries, chapter Phosphate Rock. United States Government Printing Offi ce, Washington.
  • 3. Schröder, J.J., Cordell, D., Smit, A.L. & Rosemarin, A. (2009). Sustainable use of phosphorus, European Union tenderproject ENV.B.1/ETU/2009/0025. Report 357. Plant Research International, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Retrieved March 23, 2011, from: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/natres/phosphorus.htm.
  • 4. Steen, I. (1998). Phosphorus availability in the 21st century: Management of a non-renewable resources. Phosphorus andPotassium, 217, 25-31.
  • 5. Schröder, J.J., Smit, A.L., Cordell, D. & Rosemarin, A. (2011). Improved phosphorus use effi ciency in agriculture: A key requirement for its sustainable use. Chemosphere, 84, 822-831. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.01.065.[WoS][Crossref]
  • 6. Smith, V. (1999). Eutrophication: impacts of excess nutrients of freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Environ.Pollut., 100, 179-196.[Crossref]
  • 7. Andersen, A. (2003). Disposal and recycling routes for sewage sludge- report for the UE Commission - DG - Environment - B/2, SEDES. CEEP Scope Newsl., 50, 2-3. Retrieved 12 September, 2010, from: http://www.ceep-phosphates.org/Files/ Newsletter/scope50.pdf.
  • 8. Kowalski, Z., Przewrocki, P., Kulczycka, J., Wzorek, Z., Gorazda, K. & Jodko, M. (2004). Risk Analysis of Sewage Sludge - Poland and EU Comparative Approach. Pol. J. Environ.Stud., 13(2), 237-244.
  • 9. Dulley, B., (2001). Recycling phosphorus by recovery from sewage. In: Conference Summary - Second International Conference on the recovery of phosphorus from sewage and animal wastes, 12-13 March 2011, Noordwijkerhout, Netherlands.
  • 10. Lundin, M., Olofsson, M., Pettersson, G.J. & Zetterlund, H. (2004). Environmental and economic assessment of sewage sludge handling options. Resour. Conserv. Recyc., 41(4), 255-278. DOI:10.1016/j.resconrec.2003.10.006.[Crossref]
  • 11. Stark, K., Plaza, E. & Hultman, B. (2006). Phosphorus release from ash, dried sludge and sludge residue from supercritical water oxidation by acid or base. Chemosphere, 62 (5), 827-832. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.04.069.[Crossref]
  • 12. Rittmann, B.E., Mayer, B., Westerhoff, P. & Mark Edwards, M. (2011). Capturing the lost phosphorus. Chemosphere, 84, 846-853. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.02.001.[Crossref][WoS]
  • 13. Takahashi, M., Kato, S., Shima, H., Sarai, E., Ichioka, T., Hatykawa, S. & Miyajiri, H. (2001). Technology for recovering phosphorus from incinerated wastewater treatment sludge. Chemosphere, 44, 23-29.[Crossref]
  • 14. Stasta, P., Boran, J., Bebar, L., Stehlik, P. & Oral, J. (2006). Thermal processing of sewage sludge. Appl. Therm. Eng., 26(13), 1420-1426. DOI:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2005.05.030.[WoS][Crossref]
  • 15. Jozuka, T. (2001). P-recovery from sewage sludge incineration ash. CEEP Scope Newsl., 43, 7-8. Retrieved 11 September, 2010, from: http://www.ceep-phosphates.org/Files/ Newsletter/scope43.pdf.
  • 16. Suzuki, Y. (2003). P-recovery from sewage-sludge incineration ash. CEEP Scope Newsl., 52, 4-5. Retrieved 22 September, 2011, from: http://www.ceep-phosphates.org/Files/ Newsletter/Scope52.pdf.
  • 17. Nakahara, K. & Hoshino, Y. (2000). US Patent No.6022514. Washington, D.C.: US Patents and Trademarks Offi ce.
  • 18. Vogel, C., Adam, C., Peplinski, B. & Wellendorf, S. (2010). Chemical reactions during the preparation of P and NPK fertilizers from thermochemically treated sewage sludge ashes. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr, 56(4), 627-635. DOI:10.1111/j.1747- -0765.2010.00485.x.[WoS][Crossref]
  • 19. Adam, C. , Peplinski, B. , Michaelis, M. , Kley, G. & Simon, F. (2009). Thermochemical treatment of sewage sludge ashes for phosphorus recovery. Waste Manage. 29(3), 1122-1128. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2008.09.011.[Crossref][WoS]
  • 20. Mattenberger, H., Fraissler, G., Brunner, T., Herk, P., Hermann, L. & Obernberger, I. (2008). Sewage sludge ash to phosphorus fertilizer: Variables infl uencing heavy metal removal during thermochemical treatment. Waste Manage., 28 (12), 2709-2722. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2008.01.005.[WoS][Crossref]
  • 21. Mattenberger, H., Fraissler, G., Jöller, M., Brunner, T., Obernberger, I., Herk, P. & Hermann, L. (2010). Sewage sludge ash to phosphorus fertilizer (II): Infl uences of ash and granulate type on heavy metal removal. Waste Manage., 30 (8-9), 1622-1633. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2010.03.037.[Crossref][WoS]
  • 22. Nowak, B., Perutka, L., Aschenbrenner, P., Kraus, P., Rechberger, H. & Winter, F. (2011). Limitations for heavy metal release during thermo-chemical treatment of sewage sludge ash. Waste Manage., 31 (6), 1285-1291. DOI: 10.1016/j. wasman.2011.01.029.[Crossref][WoS]
  • 23. Donatello, S., Tong, D. & Cheeseman, C.R. (2010). Production of technical grade phosphoric acid from incinerator sewage sludge ash (ISSA). Waste Manage., 30 (8-9), 1634-1642. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2010.04.009.[WoS][Crossref]
  • 24. Franz, M. (2008). Phosphate fertilizer from sewage sludge ash (SSA). Waste Manage., 28(10), 1809-1818. DOI: 10.1016/j. wasman.2007.08.011.[Crossref]
  • 25. Gorazda, K., Kowalski, Z., Wzorek, Z., Jodko, M., Rzepecki, T., Kulczycka, J., Przewrocki, P. (2003). Possibilities of Phosphorus Recovering from Municipal Sewage and Sewage Sludge. Pol. J. Appl. Chem., 2, 51-63.
  • 26. Gorazda, K. (2004). Research on phosphorus recovery fromsewage sludge formed after simultaneous municipal sewage treatmentwith the use of iron sulfate, as a phosphorus compoundsprecipitating agent. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Cracow University of Technology, Cracow, Poland.
  • 27. Gorazda, K., Wzorek, Z. & Jodko, M. (2005). Phosphorus compounds extraction from the ash after sewage sludge combustion. Pol. J. Chem. Technol., 7(1), 24-28.
  • 28. Gorazda, K. & Wzorek, Z. (2006). Selection of leaching agent for phosphorus compounds extraction from the sewage sludge ash. Pol. J. Chem. Technol., 8(3), 15-18.
  • 29. Gorazda, K., Wzorek, Z. & Jodko, M. (2007). The infl uence of the thermal processing of sewage sludge on the usage properties of the formed ash. Pol. J. Chem. Technol., 9(4), 21-27. DOI: 10.2478/v10026-007-0083-y. [Crossref]

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.