Precursors of volatile organic compounds emitted during phosphorite processing
Languages of publication
The composition of solvent-soluble organic matter of phosphorite, which is a precursor of volatile organic compounds emitted by the fertilizer industry, was studied. A benzene-methanol mixture and chloroform were used for the extraction of free and bound bitumen from phosphorites, respectively. The separated bitumen fractions were characterized qualitatively by GC-MS and quantitatively by GC-FID. n-Alkanes, n-alkenes, fatty acids and isoprenoids were identified in the extracts. The main components were n-alkanes and n-alkenes, constituting over 80% of the total bitumen determined. An unexpected presence of n-alkenes only in the free bitumen fraction was found. The possible source of ill-smelling substances evolved during treatment of phosphorite with H2SO4 was discussed.
1 - 1 - 2012
2 - 7 - 2012
- Tucker, M. E. (2001). Sedimentary Petrology (3rd ed.), Osney Nead, Blackwell Science.
- Mair, A. D. (1985) Organic matter and sulfur distribution in phosphorites, National Fertilizer Development Center, USA: Muscle Shoals.
- Belayouni, H. & Trichet, J. (1984). Hydrocarbons in phosphatized and non-phosphatized sediments from the phosphate basin of Gafsa, Org. Geochem. 6, 741-754. DOI: 10.1016/0146-6380(84)90095-0.[Crossref]
- Blazy, P. & Bouhaouss, A. (2005). Removal of organic matter in Moroccan Youssoufia phosphate by flash calcinations. Miner. Metall. Process. 2, 107-115.
- Westerlich, S., Jagodziński, T. S., Paterkowski, W. & Jagodzińska, E. (2005). Determination of organic compounds from phosphoric acid production by the extraction method, Pol. J. Chem. Techn. 4, 55-59.
- Belayouni, H., Slansky, M. & Trichet, J. (1990). A study of the organic matter in Tunisian phosphates series: Relevance to phosphorite genesis in the Gafsa Basin (Tunisia), Org. Geochem. 15, 47-72. DOI: 10.1016/0146-6380(90)90184-2.[Crossref]
- Amit, O. & Bein, A. 1982. Organic matter in Senonian phosphorites from Israel - Origin and diagenesis, Chem. Geol. 37, 277-287. DOI: 10.1016/0009-2541(82)90083-3.[Crossref]
- Trichet, J. & Fikri, J. (1997). Organic matter in the genesis of high-island atoll peloidal phosphorites: the lagoonal link, J. Sed. Res. 67, 891-897. DOI: 10.1306/D426866C-2B26-11D7-8648000102C1865D.[Crossref]
- Khaddor, M., Ziyad, M., Halim, M., Joffre, J. & Amblès, A. (1997). Characterization of soluble organic matter from Youssoufia rock phosphate, Fuel 76, 1395-1400. DOI: 10.1016/S0016-2361(97)00147-6.[Crossref]
- Hoffmann, J., Gryglewicz, G., Hoffmann, K., Gryglewicz, S., Okereke, W. & Skut, J. (2009). Emission of the odour substances from fertilizer industry, Pol. J. Chem. Technol. 11, 12-15. DOI: 10.2478/v10026-009-0004-3.[WoS][Crossref]
- Arning, E. T., Birgel, D., Brunner, B. & Peckmann, J. (2009). Bacterial formation of phosphatic laminites of Peru, Geobiology 7, 295-307. DOI: 10.1111/j.1472-4669.2009.00197.x.[WoS][PubMed][Crossref]
- Rasmussen, H. E., Hansford, R. C. & Sachanen, A. N. (1946). Reaction of aliphatic hydrocarbons with sulfur, Ind. Eng. Chem. 38, 376-382. DOI: 10.1021/ie50436a011.[Crossref]
- Horton, A. W. (1949). The mechanism of the reaction of hydrocarbons with sulfur, J. Org. Chem. 14, 761-770. DOI:10.1021/jo01157a007.[Crossref]
- Del, Rio, J. C. & Philp, R. P. (1992). Oligomerization of fatty acids as a possible source for high molecular weight hydrocarbons and sulfur-containing compounds in sediments, Org. Geochem. 18, 869-880. DOI: 10.1016/0146-6380(92)90055-3.[Crossref]
- Okpo, B. O., Oyo-Ita, O. E. & Wehner, H. (2005). Even-n-alkane/alkene predominances in surface sediments from the Calabar River, SE Niger Delta, Nigeria, Naturwissenschaften 92, 341-346. DOI: 10.1007/s00114-005-0639-8.[Crossref]
- Chaffee, A. L., Hoover, D. S., Johns, R. B., and Schweighardt, F. K. (1986). Biological markers extractable from coal. In R. B. Johns (Ed), Biological Markers in the Sedimentary Record (pp. 311-346). Elsevier, Amsterdam.
- Volkman, J. K. & Maxwell, J. R. (1986). Acyclic isoprenoids as biological markers. In R. B. Johns (Ed.) Biological Markers in the Sedimentary Record (pp. 1-42), Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Publication order reference