The paper presents determination of the effect of various chemical treatment on the strength of 288 tex jute yarn arisen from the plain weave fabric produced by LENTEX, Poland. The yarn was put to alternative treatments in: NaOH and KOH water solutions with various concentration (from 1 to 15%) and treatment duration (from 0.5 to 6 hours), vinyl acetate, methanol and toluene diisocyanate. After the treatment it was put to tensile tests. Yarn diameter and elementary fibre twist angle were also measured using MICRO PROF FRT optical profilographometer. The SEM micro-photographs have also been performed in order to evaluate the structural changes of the yarn after the treatment.Optimal conditions of alcali-treatment are: 5% concentration and 2h duration for NaOH, 3% concentration and 4h duration for KOH. Such treatments give a growth in yarn rupture force up to 10% and they are well applicable in composite materials manufacturing. Also interaction with vinyl acetate and toluene diisocyanate has practically not negative influence on the mechanical performance of the yarn. Two effects were observed which can explain the influence of chemical treatment on mechanical performance of jute yarn: swelling and change in the orientation of elementary fibres.