Radioactivity of some building and raw materials used in Croatia
Languages of publication
In the present study, the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K in some building and raw materials used in Croatia were measured by using a gamma-ray spectrometer with the HPGe detector. The average activity concentrations of the studied different building and raw materials ranged from 11.6 ± 1.7 (concrete) to 251.2 ± 25.7 Bqkg-1 (GBFS), 14.0 ± 2.7 (concrete) to 54.4 ± 8.3 (coal fly ash) and 147.2 ± 19.0 (concrete) to 773.7 ± 82.0 Bqkg-1 (tuff) for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. Radium equivalent activity, activity concentration index, absorbed gamma dose rate indoor due to the external exposure and corresponding annual effective dose were determined to estimate the exposure risk arising due to the use of these building and raw materials.
1 - 1 - 2011
5 - 10 - 2011
- CMC Sisak d.o.o., Braće Kavurić 12, 44010 Sisak, Croatia
- Rudjer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
- Jaruščica 9E, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
- Nexe Grupa d.d., Braće Radića 200, 31500 Našice, Croatia
- Okuno, N., Ishikawa, Y., Shimizu, A. & Yoshida, M. (2004). Utilization of sludge in building material. Water Sci. Technol. 49 (10), 225-232.
- Almeida, N., Branco, F. & Santos, J.R. (2007). Recycling of stone slurry in industrial activities: Application to concrete mixtures. Build. Environ. 42 (2), 810-819. DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2005.09.018.[Crossref]
- Chateau, L. (2007). Environmental acceptability of beneficial use of waste as construction material-State of knowledge, current practices and future developments in Europe and in France. J. Hazard. Mater. 139 (3), 556-562. DOI:10.1016/.jhazmat.2006.02.064.[Crossref][WoS]
- Badur, S. & Chaudhary, R. (2008). Utilization of hazardous wastes and by-products as a green concrete material through S/S process: A review. Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 17(1-2), 42-61.
- Singh, M. & Garg, M. (2008). Utilization of waste lime sludge as building materials. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 67 (2), 161-166.
- Ducman, V. & Mirtič, B. (2009). The applicability of different waste materials for the production of lightweight aggregates. Waste Manage 29 (8), 2361-2368. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2009.02.013.[WoS][Crossref]
- Jaillon, L., Poon, C.S. & Chiang, Y.H. (2009). Quantifying the waste reduction potential of using prefabrication in building construction in Hong Kong. Waste Manage 29 (1), 309-320. DOI:10.1016/j.wasman.2008.02.015.[Crossref][WoS]
- Park, S.B., Jang, Y.I., Lee, J. & Lee, B.J. (2009). An experimental study on the hazard assessment and mechanical properties of porous concrete utilizing coal bottom ash coarse aggregate in Korea. J. Hazard. Mater. 166 (1), 348-355. DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.11.054.[Crossref]
- Kurbatskij, M.N., Radionov, B.I., Kudryashov, S. Yu., Kryukov, M. Yu., Kul'pin, A.V. & Samojlov, Yu.A. (2002). Manufacturing of mineral wool products on basis of slags. Metallurg 1, 49-51.
- Mihok, L., Demeter, P., Baricova, D. & Seilerova, K. (2006). Utilization of ironmaking and steel making slags. Metalurgija 45 (3), 163-168.
- EUROPEAN COMMISSION, Radiological Protection Principles Concerning the Natural Radioactivity of Building Materials, Radiation Protection 112, European Commission, Directorate-General, Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection, 1999, p.11.
- Londhe, V.S., Rao, S.R. & Pillai, K.C. (1984). Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in building materials and evaluation of indoor radiation exposure. Environ. Technol. 5 (1), 81-88. DOI: 10.1080/09593338409384256.[Crossref]
- Mustonen, R. (1984). Natural radioactivity in and radon exhalation from Finnish building materials. Health Phys. 46(6), 1195-1203.[PubMed][Crossref]
- Xinwei, L. (2006). Natural radioactivity in some building materials and by-products of Shaanxi, China. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Ch. 262 (3), 775-777. DOI: 10.1007/s10967-004-0509-4.[Crossref]
- Al-Saleh, F.S. & Al-Berzan, B. (2007). Measurements of natural radioactivity in some kinds of marble and granite used in Riyadh region. J. Nucl. Radiat. Phys. 2 (1), 25-36.
- Manea, C., Podina, C., Pordea, I., Crutu, G., Ilie, G. & Robu, I. (2008). The estimation of cements radioactivity obtained by electrofilter ashes addition due to thermal power station based on coal from Oltenia Coalfield, Romania. Analele Universitatii din Bucuresti - Chimi. Anul XVII 1, 45-49.
- Turhan, A., Baykan, U.N. & Sen, K. (2008). Measurement of the natural radioactivity in building materials used in Ankara and assessment of external doses. J. Radiol. Prot. 28 (1), 83-87. DOI: 10.1088/0952-4746/28/1/005.[WoS][Crossref]
- Manea, C., Podina, C., Pordea, I., Crutu, G., Ilie, G. & Robu, I. (2010). The radiological risk assessment due to the radioactivity of thermal power station ashes added in building materials. Rev. Roum. Chim. 55 (1), 39-44.
- Minh Hoang, T., Thi Hong, L., Van Doan, N. & Thi Sao, K. (2008). Building standards on natural radioactivity in building materials and in homes in Vietnam, Proceedings of The 3rd ACF International Conference-ACF/VCA 2008, pp. 1277-1281
- Ordinance on the conditions, methods and terms as well, for systematically research and monitoring of types and activities of radioactive substances in air, soil, see, rivers, lakes, underground waters, solid and liquid rainfalls, drinking water, food and stuff of commonly usage and housing and business rooms as well, Official Gazette No. 60/2008 (in Croatian).
- Kovler, K. Radiation of Building materials. from
- Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK)-GUIDE ST 12.2 2005. The radioactivity of building materials and ash, Helsinki 2005, ISSN 0789-4554, from
- Beretka, J, & Mathwew, P.J. (1985). Natural Radioactivity of Australian Building Materials, Industrial Waste and By-Products, Health Phys. 48, 87-95.
- Mondal, T., Sengupta, D. & Mandal, A. (2006). Natural radioactivity of ash and coal in major thermal power plants of West Bengal, India, Current Science, 91 (10), 1387-1393, from http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/nov252006/1387.pdf.
- Viruthagiri, G., Gobi, R. & Rajamannan, B. (2009). Measurement of Natural Radioactivity in Porcelan Stoneware Tiles. Rec. Res. Sci. Technol. 1 (1), 30-33. from http://recent-science.com/article/view/895.
- Krstić, D., Nikezić, D., Stevanović, N. & Vučić, D. (2007). Radioactivity of some domestic and imported building materials from South Eastern Europe. Rad. Meas. 42, 1731-1736. DOI: 10.1016/j.radmeas.2007.09.001.[Crossref]
Publication order reference