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2011 | 17 | 2 | 69-73

Article title

Plethyzmography in assessment of hemodynamic results of pacemaker functions programming


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The paper presents potential role of plethyzmography in optimization of heart hemodynamic function during pacemaker programming.The assessment of optimal stroke volume in patients, with implanted dual chamber pacemaker (DDD), by plethyzmography was a goal of the study. The data were collected during pacing rhythm. 20 patients (8 female and 12 male, average 77.4+/-4.6 years) with dual chamber pacemaker (DDD) and with pacing rhythm during routine pacemaker control and study tests were incorporated in the study group. Hemodynamic parameters were assessed during modification of atrio-ventricular delay (AVD) for pacing rhythm of 70 bpm and 90 bpm. The time of atrioventricular was programmed with 20 ms steps within range 100-200 ms and data were recorded with two minutes delay between two consecutive measurements. Stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) were calculated from plethyzmographic signal by using Beatscope software (TNO Holand). Highest SV calculated for given pacing rhythm was named optimal stroke volume (OSV) and consequently highest cardiac output was named maximal cardiac output (MCO). The time of atrio-ventricular delay for OSV was named optimal atrioventricular delay (OAVD).The results have showed: mean values of OAVD for 70 bpm - 152+/-33 ms and for 90 bpm -149+/-35 ms, shortening of the mean OAVD time caused by increase of pacing rate from 70 bpm to 90 bpm what resulted in statistically significant decrease of OSV with not statistically significant increase of MCO. The analysis of consecutive patients revealed three types of response to increase of pacing rhythm: 1. typical-shortening of OAVD, 2. neutral-no change of OAVD and 3.atypical-lengthening of OAVD.









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1 - 1 - 2011
15 - 2 - 2012


  • Nalecz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering P, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
  • Nalecz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering P, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
  • Institute of Metrology and Biomedical Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
  • Institute of Metrology and Biomedical Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland


  • Konstantin M. Heinroth, Marcel Elster, Sebastian Nuding, Frithjof Schlegel, Arnd Christoph, Justin Carter, Michael Buerke and Karl Werdan. Impedance cardiography: a useful and reliable tool in optimization of cardiac resynchronization devices Europace 2007 9(9):744-750.[WoS]
  • E. Crystal and I. Eli Ovsyshcher Cardiac output-based versus empirically programmed AV interval - how different are they? EP Europace Volume1, Issue 2 Pp. 121-125.
  • Hung-Fat Tse, Cannas Yu, Euljoon Park and Chu-Pak Lau Impedance Cardiography for Atrioventricular Interval Optimization During Permanent Left Ventricular Pacing. Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 2003 Volume 26 Issue 1p2, Pages 189-191.
  • Martin U. Braun, Andreas Schnabel, Thomas Rauwolf, Matthias Schulze and Ruth H. Strasser. Impedance Cardiography as a Noninvasive Technique for Atrioventricular Interval Optimization in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy. Journal of Interventional Cardiac ElectrophysiologyVolume 13, Number 3 / September, 2005, p. 223-229.
  • Santos JF, Parreira L, Madeira J, Fonseca N, Soares LN, Iněs L Non invasive hemodynamic monitorization for AV interval optimization in patients with ventricular resynchronization therapy. Rev Port Cardiol 2003 Sep; 22(9):1091-8.
  • Zachary I. Whinnett, Justin E. R. Davies, Keith Willson, Anthony W. Chow, Rodney A. Foale, D. Wyn Davies, Alun D. Hughes, Darrel P. Francis, and Jamil Mayet. Determination of optimal atrioventricular delay for cardiac resynchronization therapy using acute non-invasive blood pressure. Europace (2006) 8, 358-366.

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