Animal teeth are a common model in studies on dentin adhesive materials. The aim of this study was to compare microstructural parameters (density and diameter of dentinal tubules (DT), peritubular dentin (PTD) thickness, PTD and intertubular dentin (ITD) surface area) and chemical characteristics of canine, porcine, equine, and human root dentin. The middle layers of dentin were harvested just below a cemento-enamel junction from incisors and investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS). SEM evaluation of the specimens revealed, that porcine dentin shared most similarities with human dentin. When comparing the density of DTs, canine dentin was also found to be similar to human dentin. Elemental composition of the root dentin did not differ significantly in porcine, equine and human dentin, but in canine dentin higher magnesium value in PTD compared to ITD was found. It is known that microstructural and chemical characteristics affect the strength of the adhesive bonds created among restorative materials and dentin. According to the results of this study, porcine dentin seems to be the most appropriate model to study dental materials to be used in human restorative dentistry.