Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is one of the most important opportunistic pathogens. The pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa has been associated with multiple bacterial virulence factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between P. aeruginosa strains obtained from various clinical samples and resistance to antibiotics and pathogenicity factors, such as resistance to serum bactericidal activity and biofilm formation. This study included 121 P. aeruginosa strains isolated from clinical samples; 65 of the isolated P. aeruginosa strains were carbapenem-resistant, and 56 were carbapenem-sensitive. Carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains were more often resistant to the majority of tested antibiotics, compared to carbapenem-sensitive strains. We did not find any statistically significant difference between resistance to carbapenems and serum resistance and ability of tested P. aeruginosa strains to produce biofilms. Carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains were recovered from the urinary tract significantly more often (75.0%) than carbapenem-sensitive P. aeruginosa strains (25.0%). Carbapenem-sensitive P. aeruginosa strains were recovered significantly more often from the respiratory tract than carbapenem-resistant strains, 60.0% and 40.0%, respectively. All the P. aeruginosa strains recovered from blood were serum-resistant. P. aeruginosa strains recovered from the respiratory tract and wounds were significantly frequently serum sensitive, 95.6% and 56.6%, respectively. We did not find any differences in biofilm production among the P. aeruginosa strains recovered from different sources.