This is a multicenter cross-sectional survey of 2,500 Bulgarian adult patients taking lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs) for at least 3 months with no dose change for a minimum of 6 weeks. The primary objective was to establish the proportion of patients who are on LDL-C target, according to the Fourth Joint European Task Force (FJETF) guidelines. The secondary objectives were to define the proportion of patients at target: according to the 2001 National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP ATP) III and the 2004 NCEP ATP III guidelines. The patients’ demographics, current LLD treatment, cardiovascular medical history were recorded. Next the lipid profile, glucose level and HbA1c were obtained from these patients. The investigators and patients completed questionnaires related to the LLD therapy. Gender, BMI, history of CHD, therapy compliance, risk category, lack of patient’s awareness of LDL-C targets were all studied as determinants of the undertreatment. Despite the satisfactory awareness of guidelines for management of hypercholesterolaemia, their implementation in clinical practice is still poor. Only 43.10% of patients reached the FJETF-recommended LDL-C goal, 45.24% achieved the 2001 NCEP ATP III recommended LDL-C goal, and only 21.51% - reached the 2004 NCEP ATP III recommended target. Males, CHD patients and those who were aware of LDL-C targets had more chance of reaching their desired LDL-C target.