Vertebroplasty is a new minimal-invasive procedure for the treatment of painful vertebral fractures. The risk of a pulmonary embolism ranges from 3.5 to 23% for osteoporotic fractures. However, data about the incidence and treatment strategies of pulmonary cement embolisms (PCE) are limited. We report a case of a patient with symptomatic pulmonary cement embolism after the vertebroplasty. The diagnosis was confirmed by means of CT- scan. In cases of asymptomatic patients with peripheral PCE we recommend no treatment besides clinical follow-up. In our case of symptomatic embolisms, we recommend to proceed according to the guidelines regarding the treatment of thrombotic pulmonary embolisms, which includes initial heparinization and a following 6-month coumarin therapy.