In some countries the cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates are much higher compared to the European average. The differences of HPV and its type prevalence between countries and regions influence cervical cancer incidence and mortality. Regarding the differences in cervical cancer incidence and mortality in Lithuania and Belarus, the aim of this study was to describe HPV infection level and HPVs type distribution among two study groups of patients with moderate or severe cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2-3) and cervical cancer. Our data shows that 74.2% [95% CI: 63.64÷84.76] of Lithuanian patients with cervical cancer and 85.6% [95% CI: 85.53÷92.85] of the study group with CIN2-3 were HPV positive, while in the study groups of Belarusian patients HPV infection was detected in 92.6% [95% CI, 74.25÷98.71] and 65.4% [95% CI, 44.36÷82.06] cases respectively. HPV 16 was the most prevalent type in Lithuanian as well as in Belarusian patients of the study groups. HPV 18 in Lithuanian patients of the study group with cervical cancer was identified in 10.2% [95% CI: 1.73÷18.67] and in the study group with CIN2-3 - in 2.6% [95% CI: 0.95÷6.15] of cases. HPV 18 was not detected in Belarusian patients of both groups.