The role of vegetable and fruit consumption in the aetiology of kidney cancer was analyzed using data from a case-control study conducted in two centres in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2003. The study comprised 300 patients with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed kidney cancer and 335 controls. Information on dietary habits was obtained using a standardized food frequency questionnaire including 23 food items. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression models. A strong protective effect of vegetables consumption on renal cell carcinoma risk was observed among people with high consumption of fresh vegetables (OR 0.42 95% CI (0.29–0.60)) and cooked vegetables (OR 0.71, 95% CI (0.51–1.00)). The protective role of fresh fruit was significant as crude OR 0.71, 95% CI (0.50–1.00), but after adjusting for the main risk factors no association was found (OR 1.08, 95% CI (0.71–1.64)). The protective role of pickled vegetables disappeared after adjustment for the main risk factors.