The purpose was to evaluate the effects of extract of Rhodiola rosea on learning and memory processes on rats. The two series of experiments were carried out - on naïve rats and on rats with scopolamine-impaired memory. The passive avoidance tests were performed - step-down and step-through. The latency of reactions in seconds was observed in both tests. Naïve rats treated with the extract in showed the prolongation of latency of reaction of both step-down and step-through passive avoidances compared to the controls. Rats with scopolamine-impaired memory showed shorter latency of reaction in both passive avoidance tests compared to the controls. Rats treated with the extract of Rh. Rosea with scopolamine-impaired memory prolonged the latency in both passive avoidance tests compared to scopolamine group. It was found that the extract of Rh. Rosea improved performance during learning session, short and long memory retrieval tests in naïve rats. Scopolamine impaired the learning and memory retrieval of rats, but Rh. Rosea pretreatment improved performance and turned off the deterioration effect of scopolamine on these brain functions probably by non-specific mechanisms on cholinergic neurons. The studied plant extract can be a candidate for treatment of dementia and other memory disturbances.