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2013 | 8 | 2 | 250-256

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Infections of external ventricular drainages


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1 - 4 - 2013
23 - 1 - 2013


  • Faculty of Medicine, University of Maribor, Slomškov trg 15, 2000, Maribor, Slovenia
  • Faculty of Medicine, University of Maribor, Slomškov trg 15, 2000, Maribor, Slovenia


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  • [2] Lyke K.E., Obasanjo O.O., Williams M.A., et al., Ventriculitis complicationg use of intraventricular catheters in adult neurosurgical patients. Clin. Infect. Dis., 2001, 33(12), 2028–2033 http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/324492[Crossref]
  • [3] Popp W., Muller O., Schoch B., et al. Infektionsraten bei externen Ventrikeldrainagen. Hyg. Med. 2004, 29(Suppl 1)
  • [4] Claus B.C., Shunt Infection. In: H. Richard Winn (Eds.), Youmans Neurological Surgery, 5th Ed., Vol. 3, Philadelphia: Saunders, 2004, 3419–3425
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  • [6] Ragel B.T., M.D., Browd S.R., M.D., Ph. D., and Schmidt R.H., M.D., Ph.D. Surgical shunt infection: significant reduction when using intraventricular and systemic antibiotic agents, J. Neurosurg., 2006, 105, 242–247 http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/jns.2006.105.2.242[Crossref]
  • [7] Cheng H L.O., MBBS, Spelman D., FRACP, FRCPA, Bailey M., PhD, Cooper J., MD, FRACP, FJFICM, Rosenfeld J.V., MS, FRACS, and Brecknell J.E., PhD, FRCS. External ventricular drain infections are independent of drain duration: an argument against elective revision, J. Neurosurg., 2007, 106, 378–383 http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/jns.2007.106.3.378[WoS][Crossref]
  • [8] Prabhu V.C., Kaufman H.H., Voelker J.L., Aronoff S.C., Niewiadomska-Bugaj M., Mascaro S., et al. Prophylactic antibiotics with intracranial pressure monitors and external ventricular drains: a review of the evidence, Surg. Neurol.,1999, 52, 226–236, discussion 236–237 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0090-3019(99)00084-1[Crossref]
  • [9] Megerian J.T., Comparative Infection Rates for the Codman BACTISEAL TM External Ventricular Drainage (EVD) System, Clinical Research Review. Codman & Shurtleff
  • [10] Alleyne C.H. Jr., Hassan M., Zabramski J.M., The efficacy and cost of prophylactic and perioprocedural antibiotics in patients with external ventricular drains, Neurosurgery, 2000, 47, 1124–1127, discussion 1127–1129 http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006123-200011000-00020[Crossref]
  • [11] Guyot L.L., Dowling C., Diaz F.G., Michael D.B., Cerebral monitoring devices: analyzes of complications, Acta Neurochir., 1998, Supp. 71, 47–49
  • [12] Choksey M.S., Malik I.A., Zero tolerance to shunt infections: can it be achieved? J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 2004, 75, 87–91
  • [13] Borgbjerg B.M., Gjerris F., Albeck M.J., et al., Risk of infection after cerebrospinal fluid shunt: an analysis of 884 first-time shunts. Acta Neurochir., 1995, 136, 1–7 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01411427
  • [14] Davis S.E., Levy M.L., McComb J.G., et al., Does age or other factors influence the incidence of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infections? Pediatr. Neurosurg., 1999, 30, 253–257 http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000028806[Crossref]
  • [15] Stenager E., Gerner-Smidt P., Kock-Jensen C., Ventriculostomy related infections - an epidemiological study. Acta Neurochir. (Wien), 1986, 83, 20–23 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01420503[Crossref]
  • [16] Korinek A.M., Reina M., Boch A.L., et al., Prevention of external ventricular drain-related ventriculitis, Acta Neurochir. (Wien), 2005, 147, 39–46 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-004-0416-z[Crossref]
  • [17] Pfisterer W., Muehlbauer M., Czech T., et al., Early diagnosis of external ventricular drainage infection: results of a prospective study, J.Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 2003, 74, 929–932 http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.74.7.929[Crossref]
  • [18] Ehtisham A., Taylor S., Bayless L., et al., Placement of external ventricular drains and intracranial pressure monitors by neurointensivists, Neurocrit.Care, 2009, 10, 241–247 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12028-008-9097-4[WoS][Crossref]
  • [19] Scheithauer S, Buergel U, Ryang YM, Haase G, Schiefer J, Koch S, et al. Prospective surveillance of drain-associated meningitis/ventriculitis in a neurosurgery and a neurologic intensive care unit. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2009; 80: 1381–1385 http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2008.165357[Crossref][WoS]
  • [20] Mayhall C.G., Archer N.H., Lamb V.A., Spadora A.C., Baggett J.W., Ward J.D., et al, Ventriculostomy-related infections: A prospective epidemiologic study, N. Engl. J. Med., 1984, 310, 553–559 http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM198403013100903[Crossref]
  • [21] Williams T.A., PhD, Gavin L.D., PhD, Geoeffrey J.D., MBBS, FCICM., Bright R., RN, Van Heerden V. P., PhD, Decrease in proven ventriculitis by reducing the frequency of cerebrospinal fluid sampling from extraventricular drains, J.Neurosurg., 2011 [Crossref][WoS]
  • [22] Khanna R.K., Rosenblum M.L., Rock J.P., Malik G.M., Prolonged external ventricular drainage with percutaneous long-tunnel ventriculostomies, J. Neurosurg., 1995, 83, 791–794 http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/jns.1995.83.5.0791[Crossref]
  • [23] Luerssen T.G., Chesnut R.M., Van Berkum-Clark M., Marshall L.F., Klauber M.R., Blunt B.A., et al., Post-traumatic cerebrospinal fluid infections in the Traumatic Coma Data Bank: the influence of the type and management of ICP monitors, in Avezaat C.J.J., Van Eijndhoven J.H.M., Mass A.I.R., Tans J.T.J. (Eds): Intracranial Pressure VIII: Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Intracranial Pressure, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1993, pp 42–4519 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-77789-9_9[Crossref]
  • [24] Wong G.C.K., Poon W.S., Wai S., Yu L.M., Lyon D., Lam J.M.K., Failure of regular external drain exchange to reduce cerebrospinal fluid infection: result of a randomised controlled trial, J. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 2002, 73, 759–761 http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.73.6.759[Crossref]
  • [25] Piatt J.H. Jr., Carlson C.V., A search for determinants of cerebrospinal fluid shunt survival: retrospective analysis of a 14-year institutional experience, Pediatr. Neurosurg., 1993, 19, 233–242 http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000120738[Crossref]
  • [26] Zabramski M.J., M.D., Whiting D., M.D., Darouiche R.O., M.D., Horner T.G., M.D., Olson J., M.D., Robertson C., M.D., and Hamilton A.J., M.D., Efficacy of antimicrobial-impregnated external ventricular drain catheters: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial, J. Neurosurg., 2003, 98, 725–730 http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/jns.2003.98.4.0725[Crossref]
  • [27] Soleman J, Marbacher S., Fandino J., Fathi A.R., Is the use of antibiotic-impregnated external ventricular drainage beneficial in the management of iatrogenic ventriculitis?, Acta Neurochir. (Wien), 2012, 154(1), 161–4, discussion 164 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-011-1156-5[WoS][Crossref]

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