In 2005, the European Commission presented a report on the current situation associated with the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding in 29 European countries. According to the report, exclusive breastfeeding was undertaken by 71% of the mothers in Poland. We concluded that an attempt shall be made to verify these data values. The aim of our survey was to assess the duration of breastfeeding and identify the potential medical and social factors affecting this parameter in Poland. We surveyed 427 women aged 18 to 40 from Northeastern Poland. The duration of breastfeeding and the presence of selected potential factors that may affect this parameter were assessed in 591 children. The mean duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 4.73 months with breastfeeding being initiated in 97.87% and continued beyond 12 months (following the introduction of complementary foods) in 32.49 % of the children. In our region, nearly all mothers attempt to breastfeed. Exclusive breastfeeding is continued by 75.46% and 29.27% of the mothers by 3 and 6 months of the baby’s life. Breastfeeding with complementary feeding is continued by 56.01% and 32.49% of the mothers by 6 and 12 months of the baby’s life.