A hospital-based analytical observational case-control study of 88 oesophageal cancer cases and 200 controls was conducted in the University Hospital Olomouc. A standardized questionnaire was used. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) are calculated by logistic regression. The adjusted odds ratios for tobacco smoking were 6.20 (95% CI 2.78–13.83), 10.64 (95% CI 3.46–32.72) and 3.53 (95% CI 1.26–9.88) for oesophageal cancer, for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and oesophageal adenocarcinoma, respectively. An inverse association with overweight and obesity was found in both histological types. In adenocarcinoma, there was a relatively strong positive association with a statistically significant result for alcohol consumption only in a group consuming more than 300 g of alcohol weekly; the OR was 5.81 (95% CI 1.17–28.84). The strong, statistically significant association was found in alcohol consumption regardless of histological type: the OR was 4.41 (95% CI 1.09–17.84). In a group with 20 or more X-ray exposures, there was a very strong statistically significant positive association. In vegetable consumption, an inverse association was found that was statistically significant only if more than 8 portions of vegetables were eaten weekly, ORs were 0.02–0.11.