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2012 | 7 | 6 | 756-760

Article title

Histological changes of gingival epithelium in smokers and non-smokers


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1 - 12 - 2012
11 - 10 - 2012


  • Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, Medical Faculty, University of Nis, Dr Z. Djindjica 81 Blvd, 18000, Nis, Serbia
  • Institute of Pathology, Medical Faculty, University of Nis, Dr Z. Djindjica 81 Blvd, 18000, Nis, Serbia
  • Department of Oral Surgery, Dental Faculty, University of Podgorica, Krusevac bb Street, 81110, Podgorica, Monte Negro
  • Dental Clinic, Medical Faculty, University of Nis, Dr Z. Djindjica 81 Blvd, 18000, Nis, Serbia


  • [1] Axelsson P., Paulander J., Lindhe J., Relationships between smoking and dental status in 35-,50-,65- and 75- year old individuals, J. Clin. Periodontol., 1998,25, 297–305 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-051X.1998.tb02444.x[Crossref]
  • [2] Bergstrom J., Eliasson S., Dock J., Exposure to tobacco smoking and periodontal health, J. Clin. Periodontol., 2000, 27, 61–68 http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-051x.2000.027001061.x[Crossref]
  • [3] Haber RL., Walttles J., Crowey M., Mandell R., Joshipura K., Kent RL., Evidence for cigarette smoking as a major risk factor for periodontitis, J. Periodontol., 1993, 64, 16–23 http://dx.doi.org/10.1902/jop.1993.64.1.16[Crossref]
  • [4] Bergstrom J., Oral hygiene complance and gingivitis expression in cigarette smokers, Scand. J. Dent. Res., 1990, 98, 497–503
  • [5] Bergstrom J., Preber H., The influence of cigarette smoking on the development of experimental gingivitis, J. Periodontal Res., 1986, 21, 668–676 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0765.1986.tb01504.x[Crossref]
  • [6] MacFarlane GD., Herzberg MC., Wolff LE., Hardie NA., Refractory periodontitis associated with abnormal polymorphonuclear leukocyte phagocytosis and cigarette smoking, J. Periodontol., 1992, 63, 908–913 http://dx.doi.org/10.1902/jop.1992.63.11.908[Crossref]
  • [7] Zambon JJ., Grossi SG., Machtei EE., Cigarette smoking and subgingival infection, J. Periodontol., 1996, 67, 1050–1055 http://dx.doi.org/10.1902/jop.1996.67.10s.1050[Crossref]
  • [8] Bergstrom J., Preber H., Tobacco use as a risk factor, J. Periodontol., 1994, 65, 545–550 [Crossref]
  • [9] Danielsen B., Manji F., Nageilkerke N., Fejerskov O., Baelum V., Effect of cigarette smoking on the transition dynamics in experimental gingivitis, J. Clin. Periodontol 1990, 17, 159–164 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-051X.1990.tb01080.x[Crossref]
  • [10] Kiernan JA., Histological and Histochemical Methods: Theory and Practice, 4th ed., Bloxham, UK: Scion, 2008
  • [11] Palmer RM., Wilson RF., Hasan AS., Scott DA., Mechanisms of action of environmental factorstobacco smiking, J. Clin. Periodontol., 2005, 32, 180–195 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-051X.2005.00786.x[Crossref]
  • [12] Dietrich T., Bernimoulin JP., Glynn R., The effect of cigarette smoking on gingival bleeding, J. Periodontol., 2004, 75, 16–22 http://dx.doi.org/10.1902/jop.2004.75.1.16[Crossref]
  • [13] Salvi GE., Ramseier CA., Kandylaki M., Sigrist L., Awedowa E., Lang NP., Experimental gingivitis in cigarette smokers. A clinical and microbiological stydy, J Clin. Periodontol., 2005, 32, 441–447 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-051X.2005.00691.x[Crossref]
  • [14] Biddle AJ., Palmer RM., Wilson RF., Watts TL., Comparison of the validity of periodontal probing measurements in smokers and non-smokers, J. Clin. Perioidontol., 2001, 28, 806–812 http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-051X.2001.280813.x[Crossref]
  • [15] Giannopoulou C., Roehrich N., Mombelli A., Effect of nicotine-treated epithelial cells on the proliferation and collagen production of gingival fibroblasts, J. Clin. Periodontol., 2001, 28, 769–775 http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-051X.2001.280808.x[Crossref]
  • [16] Alonge OH., Ashrafi SH., Colvard MD., Mitochondrial volumen densities in the smokless tobacco-treated hamster cheek pouch epithelium, Oral Diseases., 2003, 9, 128–143
  • [17] Polson Am., Greenstein G., Caton J., Relation between epithelium and connective tissue in inflamed gingiva, J. Periodontol, 1981, 52, 743–774 http://dx.doi.org/10.1902/jop.1981.52.12.743[Crossref]
  • [18] Villar CC., Lima AF., Smoking influences on the thickness of marginal gingival epithelium, Pesqui Odontol. Bras., 2003, 17, 41–45 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517-74912003000100008[Crossref]
  • [19] Mirbod MS., Ahing IS., Pruthi KV., Immunohistochemical study of vestibular gingival blood vessel density and internal circumference in smokers and non-smokers, J. Periodontol., 2001, 72, 1318–1323 http://dx.doi.org/10.1902/jop.2001.72.10.1318[Crossref]

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