Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results


2012 | 7 | 5 | 628-634

Article title

Persistence of conduct disorders and their relation to early initiation of smoking and alcohol drinking in a prospective ELSPAC Study


Title variants

Languages of publication



The important risk factors of early initiation of smoking and alcohol drinking are: prosmoking family and peers, conduct disorders and delinquency, poor academic performance. The data obtained by physicians, teachers and children were collected at the age of 11 years. Children were divided into group A (without symptoms), Group B (with one or more symptoms). For statistic analysis, the programme EPI INFO was used.During the period between 7 and 11 years, new children with problematic behaviour (178=3.9%) were diagnosed in Group A, while substantial decreasing of children previously included in Group B was seen (by 59.1%). Together 7.05% of 11 years old children visited specialists (psychologists) due to their conduct disorders: 6.8% from Group A and 12.3% from Group B. Children more often than their teachers reported the frequent occurrence of conduct disorder. About 20% of children smoked, and more than 40% had tasted alcohol. However, the differences between Groups A and B were not significant. Our prospective study has demonstrated the possibility of misinterpretation of behavioural outputs. Children with previous behavioural problems had not a higher risk for early smoking and alcohol use.










Physical description


1 - 10 - 2012
28 - 7 - 2012


  • Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00, Brno, Czech Republic
  • Research Institute of Preventive and Social Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Bieblova 16, 613 00, Brno, Czech Republic
  • Research Institute of Preventive and Social Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Bieblova 16, 613 00, Brno, Czech Republic
  • Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00, Brno, Czech Republic


  • [1] Tucker, J.S., Martínez, J.F., Ellickson, P.L., Edelen, M.O. (2008). Temporal associations of cigarette smoking with social influences, academic performance, and delinquency: A Four Wave Longitudinal Study from ages 13 to 23. Psychology of Addictive Behavior, 22, 1–11 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-164X.22.1.1[Crossref]
  • [2] Tucker, J.S., Ellickson, P.L., Klein, D.J. (2003). Predictors of the transition to regular smoking during adolescence and young adulthood. Journal of Adolescent Health, 32,314–324 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X(02)00709-7[Crossref]
  • [3] Barkley, R.A., Fischer, M., Edelbrock, C.S., Smallish, I. (1999). The adolescent outcome of hyperactive children diagnosed by research criteria: An 8-year prospective follow-up study. Journal American Academy Child and Adolescence Psychiatry, 29, 546–557 http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199007000-00007[Crossref]
  • [4] Lynskey, M.T.& Fergusson, D.M. (1995). Childhood conduct problems, attention deficit behaviors, and adolescent alcohol, tobacc, and illicit drug use. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23, 281–302 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01447558[Crossref]
  • [5] Milberger, S., Biederman, J., Faraone, S.V., Chen, I., Jones, J. (1997). ADHD is associated with early initiation of cigarette smoking in children and adolescents. Journal American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 37–44 http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199701000-00015[Crossref]
  • [6] Katusic, S.K., Barnaresi, W.J., Colligan, R.C., Weaver, A.L., Leibson, C.L., Jacobsen, S.J. (2005). Psychostimulant treatment and risk for substance abuse among young adults with a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a populationbased, birth cohort study. Journal of Child and Asolescent Psychopharmacology, 15, 764–776 http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cap.2005.15.764[Crossref]
  • [7] Biederman, J., Monuteaux, M.C., Mick, E. (2006). Psychopathology in females with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder: a controlled five-year prospective study. Biology Psychiatry, 60, 1098–1105 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.02.031[Crossref]
  • [8] Elkins, I.J., McGue, M., Iacono, W.G. (2007). Prospective effects of attention-deficit/hyperacitivy disorder, conduct disorders and sex on adolescent substance use and abuse. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 1145–1152 http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.64.10.1145[Crossref][WoS]
  • [9] Brook, J.S., Duan, T., Zhang, C., Cohen, P.R., Brook, D.W. (2008). The association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescence and smoking in adulthood. American Journal of Addiction, 17, 54–59 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10550490701756039[Crossref]
  • [10] Degenhardt, L., Chiu, W.T., Conway, K. (2009). Does the „gateway“ matter? Associations between the order of drug use initiation and the development of drug dependence in the National Comorbidity Study Replication. Psychology Medicine, 39, 157–167 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291708003425[Crossref]
  • [11] Wells, J.E.& McGee, M.A. (2008). Violations of the usual sequence of drug initiation prevalence and associations with the development of dependence in the New Zealand Mental Health Survey. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 69: 789–795
  • [12] Looby, A. (2008). Childhood attention deficit hyperacitivity disorder and the development of substance use disorders: valid concern or exaggeration? Addictive Behaviors, 33, 451–463 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2007.10.006[Crossref][WoS]
  • [13] Charach, A., Yeang, E., Climans, T., Lillie E. (2011). Childood attention-deficit/hyperacitivy disorder and future substavce use disorders: comparative meta-analyses. Journal American Academy Child and Adolescence Psychiatry, 50, 9–21 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2010.09.019[Crossref][WoS]
  • [14] Bidwell, L.C., Garrett, M.E., McClenon, F.J., Fuemmeier, B.F., Williams, R.B., Ashley-Koch, A.E., Kollins, S.H. (2011) A preliminary analysis of interactions between genotype, retrospective ADHD symptoms, and initial reactions to smoking in a sample of young adults. Nicotine Tobacco Research. http://ntr.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/07/20ntr.ntr125.full. Accesed 20 July, 2011 [WoS]
  • [15] Fite, P.J., Colder, C.R., Lochman, J.E. (2007). The relation between childhood proactive and reactive aggression and substance use initiation. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, doi:10.1007/ s10802-007-9175-7 [WoS][Crossref]
  • [16] Disney, E.R., Elkins, I.J., McGue, M., Iacono, W.G. (1999). Effects of ADHS, conduct disorder, and gender on substance use and abuse in adolescence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 1515–1521
  • [17] Ernst, M., Luckenbaugh, D.A., Moolchan, E.T. (2006). Behavioral predictors of substance-use initiation in adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics, 117, 2030–2039 http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2005-0704[Crossref]
  • [18] Kean, B. (2005). The risk society and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A critical social research analysis concerning the development and social impact of the ADHD diagnosis. Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry, 7, 131–141
  • [19] Moffitt, T.E. (2005). The new look of behavioral genetics in developmental psychopathology: Geneenvironment interplay in antisocial behaviors. Psychology Bulletin, 131, 533–554 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.131.4.533[Crossref]
  • [20] Beaver, K.M. (2008) Nonshared environmental influences on adolescent delinquent involvement and adult criminal behaviour. Criminology, 46, 341–370 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2008.00112.x[Crossref][WoS]
  • [21] Slotkin, T.A. (1998). Fetal nicotine or coccaine exposure: which one is worse? Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 285, 931–945
  • [22] Linnet, K.M. (2003). Maternal lifestyle factors in pregnancy risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated behaviors: review of the current evidence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1028–1040 http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.160.6.1028[Crossref]
  • [23] McGloin, J.M., Pratt, T.C., Piquero, A.P.O.D. (2006). A life-course analysis of the criminogenic effects of maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy. Journal of Research in Crime and Deliquency, 43, 412–426 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022427806292340[Crossref]
  • [24] Wakschlag, L.D., Pickett, K.E., Kasza, K.E., Loeber, R. (2006). Is prenatal smoking associated with a developmental pattern of conduct problems in young boys? Journal American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 461–467 http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000198597.53572.3e[Crossref]
  • [25] Herrmann, M. (2008). Prenatal tobacco smoke and postnatal secondhand smoke exposure and child neurodevelopment. Current Opinion Paediatrics, 20, 184–190 http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0b013e3282f56165[WoS][Crossref]
  • [26] Twardella, D. (2010). Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and child behaviour -results from a cross-sectional study among preschool children in Bavaria. Acta pediatrica,99,106–111
  • [27] Tiesler, C.M.T., Chen, Ch.M., Sausenthaler, S., Herbarth, O., Lehmann, I., Schaal, B., et al. (2011). Passive smoking and behavioural problems in children: Results from the LISAplus prospective birth cohort study. Environmental Research, 111(8):1175–1179 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2011.06.011[WoS][Crossref]
  • [28] Perera, F.P., Wang, S., Vishnevetsky, J., Zhang, B., Cole, K.J., Tang, D., et al. (2011). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - aromatic DNA adducts in cord blood and behaviour scores in New York City children. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119, 1176–1181 http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1002705[WoS][Crossref]
  • [29] Boutwell, B.B.,& Beaver, K.M. (2010). Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and offspring externalizing behavioral problems: A propensity score matching analysis. Internal Journal Environmental Research of Public Health, 7, 146–163 http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7010146[WoS][Crossref]
  • [30] Fergusson, D.M., Horwood, L.J., Ridder, E.M. (2007). Conduct and attentional problems in childhood and adolescence and later substance use, abuse and dependence: results of a 25-year longitudinal study. Drug Alcohol Dependence, 88(Suppl 1), S14–S26 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2006.12.011[Crossref]
  • [31] Kukla, L., Hruba, D., Tyrlik, M., Matějová, H. (2008). Conduct disorders in seven-year-old children: Results of ELSPAC Study. 2. Risk factors. (Poruchy chování u sedmiletých dětí; výsledky studie ELSPAC. 2. Rizikové faktory. In Czech, English summary). Časopis Lékařů českých, 147, 311–318
  • [32] Biederman, J., Wilens, T., Mick, E., Faraone, M.E., Weber, W., Curtis, S. (1997) Is ADHD a risk for psychoactive substance abuse disorder? Findings from a four year follow-up study. Journal American Academy Child and Adolescence Psychiatry, 36, 21–29 http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199701000-00013[Crossref]
  • [33] van den Bree, M.B.M., Whitmer, M.D., Pickworth, W.B. (2004). Predictors of smoking development in a population-based sample of adolescents: A prospective study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 35, 172–181 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2003.09.021[Crossref]
  • [34] Griffin, K.W., Botvin, G.J., Doyle, M.M., Diaz, T., Epstein, J.A. (1999) A six-year follow-up study of determinants of heavy cigarette smoking among high-school seniors. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 22, 271–284 http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1018772524258[Crossref]
  • [35] Guilamo-Ramos, V., Litardo, H.A., Jaccard, J. (2005). Prevention programs for reducing adolescent problem behaviors: Implications of the co-occurrence of problem behaviors in adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 36, 82–86 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2003.12.013[Crossref]
  • [36] Glantz, M.D., Anthony, J.C., Berglund, P.A. (2009). Mental disorders as risk factors for later substance dependence: estimates of optimal prevention and treatment benefits. Psychology Medicine, 39, 1365–1377 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291708004510[Crossref]

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.