The aim of this study was to examine the effect of treatment type on anxiety in patients with cervical cancer. Subjects and methods: This prospective study was conducted in 60 patients with cervical cancer treated by radiotherapy. The study was done before treatment, and 3 and 6 months after initial testing. For assessment of anxiety the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A) was used.: At baseline, the values of the scale of anxiety in patients who were treated surgically were significantly higher than in patients who had been treated by radiotherapy, but the intensity of anxiety gradually decreased in both groups. In this study, pain and irregular menstrual bleeding were the most important risk factors for the development of anxiety.: Routine assessment should be introduced in clinical practice for the detection and monitoring of anxiety in all patients with cervical cancer, and a psychiatrist should be included in the multidisciplinary team for their treatment.