Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results


2012 | 7 | 1 | 129-136

Article title

Prescribers’ perspectives of the socioeconomic status and important indicators affecting prescribing behavior in a developing country


Title variants

Languages of publication



Patients suffer differential prescribing behavior as a function of their socioeconomic status. The current study was conducted in a qualitative and two observational phases in Lahore metropolitan area to investigate physician’s perspectives of patients’ socioeconomic status and the important indicators influencing prescribing behavior. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with physicians (N=20) from 2 hospitals, 2 diabetes care centers and 2 private clinics and scripts were analyzed for socioeconomic indicators. In the second phase, the opinions of a panel of prescribers (N=43) on the influence socioeconomic indicators on prescribing behavior were elicited. In the third phase a bipolar 5-point Likert rating scale was used to elicit the importance of indicators for physicians (N=100) originated from urban and rural areas. In the interviews physicians gave 15 potential socioeconomic indicators. Following the two Delphi rounds, consensus was reached on 11 (73.3%) of the indicators, the remaining 4 (26.7%) were highly disputable. Bivariate analysis showed that literacy, educational background, compliance, dress and appearance were important indicators at the time of clinical decision making for physicians originating from urban areas than for physicians originating from rural areas. Physicians originating from urban and rural areas perceived the socioeconomic status differently.










Physical description


1 - 2 - 2012
24 - 11 - 2011


  • Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Alternative Medicine, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, 63100, Pakistan
  • Département Santé Publique et Biostatistique, Université Paris Descartes, 45 Rue Saints Pères, 75006, Paris, France
  • Department of Pharmacy-Pharmacology-Toxicology, Hôtel-Dieu Hospital, 1 Place Notre-Dame, 75004, Paris, France
  • Division of Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, FI-00014, Helsinki, Finland
  • Division of Social Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, FI-00014, Helsinki, Finland


  • [1] van Ryn M., Burke J. The effect of patient race and socio-economic status on physicians’ perceptions of patients. Soc Sci Med., 2000, 50(6), 813–828 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(99)00338-X[Crossref]
  • [2] Woo J.K., Ghorayeb S.H., Lee C.K., Sangha H., Richter S. Effect of patient socioeconomic status on perceptions of first- and second-year medical students. CMAJ, 2004, 170(13), 1915–1919 http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.1031474[Crossref]
  • [3] Bradley F., Elvey R., Ashcroft D.M., Noyce P. Influence of prescription charges on repeat prescribing in primary care. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther., 2007, 32(3), 269–275 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2710.2007.00821.x[Crossref]
  • [4] Siciliani L., Verzulli R. Waiting times and socioeconomic status among elderly Europeans: evidence from SHARE. Health Econ., 2009, 18(11), 1295–1306 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hec.1429[WoS][Crossref]
  • [5] Aziz Z., Iqbal J., Akram M., Anderson B.O. Worsened oncologic outcomes for women of lower socio-economic status (SES) treated for locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) in Pakistan. Breast, 2010, 19(1), 38–43 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.breast.2009.10.005[WoS][Crossref]
  • [6] Baig A.A., Heisler M. The Influence of Patient Race and Socioeconomic Status and Resident Physician Gender and Specialty on Preventive Screening. Semin. Med. Pract., 2008, 1(11), 27–35
  • [7] Lesen E., Andersson K., Petzold M., Carlsten A. Socioeconomic determinants of psychotropic drug utilisation among elderly: a national population-based cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 2010, 10, 118 http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-10-118[WoS][Crossref]
  • [8] Odubanjo E., Bennett K., Feely J. Influence of socioeconomic status on the quality of prescribing in the elderly - a population based study. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 2004, 58(5), 496–502 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2004.02179.x[Crossref]
  • [9] Bernheim S.M., Ross J.S., Krumholz H.M., Bradley E.H. Influence of patients’ socioeconomic status on clinical management decisions: a qualitative study. Ann. Fam. Med., 2008, 6(1), 53–59 http://dx.doi.org/10.1370/afm.749[Crossref][WoS]
  • [10] Dean B., Barber N., Schachter M. What is a prescribing error? Qual. Health Care, 2000, 9(4), 232–237 http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/qhc.9.4.232[Crossref]
  • [11] Duffield C. The Delphi technique: a comparison of results obtained using two expert panels. Int. J. Nurs. Stud., 1993, 30(3), 227–237 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0020-7489(93)90033-Q[Crossref]
  • [12] Murphy M.K., Black N.A., Lamping D.L., McKee C.M., Sanderson C.F., Askham J., Marteau T. Consensus development methods, and their use in clinical guideline development. Health Technol. Assess., 1998, 2(3), i–iv, 1–88
  • [13] Scott E.A., Black N. When does consensus exist in expert panels? J. Public. Health Med., 1991, 13(1), 35–39
  • [14] Hasson F., Keeney S., McKenna H. Research guidelines for the Delphi survey technique. J. Adv. Nurs., 2000, 32(4), 1008–1015
  • [15] Keeney S., Hasson F., McKenna H.P. A critical review of the Delphi technique as a research methodology for nursing. Int. J. Nurs. Stud., 2001, 38(2), 195–200 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-7489(00)00044-4[Crossref]
  • [16] Erah P.O., Olumide G.O., Okhamafe A.O. Prescribing practices in two health care facilities in Warri; southern Nigeria: A comparative study. Trop. J. Pharm. Res., 2003, 2(1), 175–182
  • [17] Espelt A., Borrell C., Roskam A.J., Rodriguez-Sanz M., Stirbu I., Dalmau-Bueno A., Regidor E., Bopp M., Martikainen P., Leinsalu M., Artnik B., Rychtarikova J., Kalediene R., Dzurova D., Mackenbach J., Kunst A.E. Socioeconomic inequalities in diabetes mellitus across Europe at the beginning of the 21st century. Diabetologia, 2008, 51(11), 1971–1979 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-008-1146-1[WoS][Crossref]
  • [18] Hadden W.C., Pappas G., Khan A.Q. Social stratification, development and health in Pakistan: an empirical exploration of relationships in population-based national health examination survey data. Soc. Sci. Med., 2003, 57(10), 1863–1874 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(03)00052-2[Crossref]
  • [19] Willems S., De Maesschalck S., Deveugele M., Derese A., De Maeseneer J. Socio-economic status of the patient and doctor-patient communication: does it make a difference? Patient Educ. Couns., 2005, 56(2), 139–146 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2004.02.011[Crossref]
  • [20] Morris J., Stevens P. Counterfeit medicines in less developed countries: problems and solutions. International Policy Network 2006, London
  • [21] Kripalani S., Bussey-Jones J., Katz M.G., Genao I. A prescription for cultural competence in medical education. J. Gen. Intern. Med., 2006, 21(10), 1116–1120 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1497.2006.00557.x[Crossref]
  • [22] Rohra D.K., Gilani A.H., Memon I.K., Perven G., Khan M.T., Zafar H., Kumar R. Critical evaluation of the claims made by pharmaceutical companies in drug promotional material in Pakistan. J. Pharm. Sci., 2006, 9(1), 50–59
  • [23] Rohra D.K., Bashir M.U., Khwaja U.A., Nazir M.R. Critical appraisal of apparently evidence-based written advertising in Pakistan. Pharm. World. Sci., 2008, 30(3), 216–221 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11096-007-9170-7[WoS][Crossref]

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.