The principle of symmetry-asymmetry is widely presented in the structural and functional organization of the nonliving and living nature. One of the most complex manifestations of this principle is the left-right asymmetry of the human brain. The present review summarizes previous and contemporary literary data regarding the role of brain asymmetry in neuroimmunomodulation. Some handedness-related peculiarities are outlined additionally. Brain asymmetry is considered to be imprinted in the formation and regulation of the individual’s responses and relationships at an immunological level with the external and internal environment. The assumptions that the hemispheres modulate immune response in an asymmetric manner have been confirmed in experiments on animals. Some authors assume that the right hemisphere plays an indirect role in neuroimmunomodulation, controlling and suppressing the left hemispheric inductive signals.