Left ventricular (LV) mass and LV geometry are well-established measures of hypertension chronicity and severity, have a prognostic value on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and are related to asymptomatic cerebral small-artery disease (SAD) and largeartery disease (LAD). The aim of the present study was to clarify the different effects of LV mass and LV geometry on underlying SAD compared with its effects on underlying LAD in ischemic stroke patients. Four hundred three ischemic stroke patients underwent echocardiography to determine LV mass index and relative wall thickness. Brain magnetic resonance imaging, angiography, and carotid magnetic resonance angiography were preformed to detect LAD (≥50% stenosis) and SAD (leukoaraiosis, microbleeds, and old lacunar infarction) in the brain. Multivariate analyses showed that the LV mass index was highly associated with underlying SAD but not with underlying LAD. Among the various subtypes of SAD, only cerebral microbleeds were closely related to the LV mass index. Concentric LV hypertrophy was not related to the presence of either SAD or LAD. Subgroup analyses revealed that, among the various subtypes of SAD, only cerebral microbleeds were associated with concentric LV hypertrophy. In conclusion, cerebral microbleeds may imply more advanced target organ damage than underlying LAD and ischemic subtypes of SAD.