Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results


2010 | 5 | 4 | 513-519

Article title

Prognostic factors in patients who have survived myocardial infarction


Title variants

Languages of publication



Patients who have survived myocardial infarction (MI), compared to the general population, have an increased risk of reinfarction, myocardial revascularization, and death. In this study we investigated the prognostic significance of the predictors of the risk for adverse coronary events in 118 patients, both male and female, with a confirmed diagnosis of MI in the last 3 years. The predictors of reinfarction, revascularization and death in patients who survived MI were: poor adherence to hypolipemics (hazard ratio [HR] 3.06, p=0.006), physical inactivity (HR 2.22, p=0.056), the number of variable risk factors (HR 1.29, p=0.025), and age (HR 1.06, p=0.007). After the inclusion of the invariable risk factors in the model of multivariant analysis, the following factors were singled out as significant predictors of the risk: gender (HR 3.86, p=0.0015), physical inactivity (HR 2.38, p=0.007), change in the level of triglycerides (HR 1.49, p=0.040), change in the number of variable risk factors (HR 1.41, p=0.0007), and age (HR 1.05, p=0.009). A 3-year follow-up of the patients who survived the first MI and who were enrolled in this study of secondary prevention demonstrated that physical inactivity, the number of variable risk factors and age significantly contributed to an increased risk of reinfarction, revascularization, and death.










Physical description


1 - 8 - 2010
30 - 5 - 2010


  • Department of Pediatrics, Health Care Centre Pirot, Vojvode Momčila bb, 18300, Pirot, Serbia
  • Emergency Health Care Department, Health Care Centre Leskovac, Svetozara Markovića 116, 16000, Leskovac, Serbia
  • Institute for the Tnerapy and Rehabilitation „Niška Banja”, Srpskih junaka 2, 18205, Niška Banja, Serbia
  • Clinic of Cardiology, Clinical Centre Niš, Blvd. Zorana Đinđića 48, 18000, Niš, Serbia
  • Center for medical research and development health care, Vuka Karadžića 6, 78000, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Institute for the Tnerapy and Rehabilitation „Niška Banja”, Srpskih junaka 2, 18205, Niška Banja, Serbia


  • [1] Bošković D., Vasiljević-Pokrajčić Z., Acute myocardial infarction, in: Manojlović D. (editor), Internal Medicine, I edition, Centre for Textbooks and Teaching Resources, Belgrade, 1998, 210–226
  • [2] Murabito J.M., Evans J.C., Larson M.G., Levy D., Prognosis after the onset of coronary heart disease. An investigation of differences in outcome between the sexes according to initial coronary disease presentation, Circulation, 1993, 88, 2548–2555
  • [3] Beller G., Coronary heart disease in the first 30 years of the 21st century: challenges and opportunities: The 33rd Annual James B. Herrick Lecture of the Council on Clinical Cardiology of the American Heart Association. Circulation, 2001, 103, 2428–2435
  • [4] Thom T.J., Kannel W.B., Silbershatz H., D’Agostino R.B., Cardiovascular disease in the United States and preventive approaches. In: Fuster V., Alexander R.W., O’Rourke R.A. (Eds.), Hurst’s The Heart, Arteries and Veins, 10th ed., New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2001
  • [5] Graham I., Atar D., Borch-Johnsen K., Boysen G., Burell G., Cifkova R., et al., European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: executive summary. Fourth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice, Eur. Heart J., 2007, 1–40
  • [6] Gerber Y., Jacobsen S.J., Frye R.L., Weston S.A., Killian J.M., Roger V.L., Secular Trends in Deaths From Cardiovascular Diseases A 25-Year Community Study, Circulation, 2006, 113, 2285–2292 http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.590463[Crossref]
  • [7] McGovern P.G., Jacobs D.R. Jr, Shahar E., Arnett D.K., Folsom A.R., Blackburn H., et al., Trends in acute coronary heart disease mortality, morbidity, and medical care from 1985 through 1997: the Minnesota Heart Survey, Circulation, 2001, 104, 19–24 http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/hc3001.093607
  • [8] Rosamond W.D., Folsom A.R., Chambless L.E., Wang C.H., Coronary heart disease trends in four United States communities: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study 1987–1996., Int. J. Epidemiol. 2001, 30,Suppl 1, S17–S22
  • [9] Fox C.S., Evans J.C., Larson M.G., Kannel W.B., Levy D., Temporal trends in coronary heart disease mortality and sudden cardiac death from 1950 to 1999: the Framingham Heart Study, Circulation, 2004, 110, 522–527 http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000136993.34344.41[Crossref]
  • [10] Goraya T.Y., Jacobsen S.J., Kottke T.E., Frye R.L., Weston S.A., Roger V.L., Coronary heart disease death and sudden cardiac death: a 20-year population-based study, Am. J. Epidemiol., 2003, 157, 763–770 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwg057[Crossref]
  • [11] Salomaa V., Ketonen M., Koukkunen H., Immonen-Raiha P., Jerkkola T., Karja-Koskenkari P., et al., Decline in out-of-hospital coronary heart disease deaths has contributed the main part to the overall decline in coronary heart disease mortality rates among persons 35 to 64 years of age in Finland: the FINAMI Study, Circulation, 2003, 108, 691–696 http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000083720.35869.CA[Crossref]
  • [12] Derby C.A., Lapane K.L., Feldman H.A., Carleton R.A., Sex-specific trends in validated coronary heart disease rates in southeastern New England, 1980–1991., Am. J. Epidemiol., 2000, 151, 417–429
  • [13] Roger V.L., Jacobsen S.J., Weston S.A., Bailey K.R., Kottke T.E., Frye R.L., Trends in heart disease deaths in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1979–1994., Mayo Clin. Proc., 1999, 74, 651–657 http://dx.doi.org/10.4065/74.7.651[Crossref]
  • [14] Køber L., Torp-Pedersen C., Otteses M., Burchardt H., Korup E., Lyngborg K., Influence of age on the prognostic importance of left ventricular dysfunction and congestive heart failure on long-term survival after acute MI. TRACE study group, Am. J. Cardiol., 1996, 78, 158–162 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9149(96)90389-6[Crossref]
  • [15] Køber L., Torp-Pedersen C., Ottesen M., Rasmussen S., Lessing M., Skagen K., and The TRACE study group, Influence of gender on short- and long-term mortality after acute myocardial infarction, Am. J. Cardiol., 1996, 77, 1052–1056 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9149(96)00129-4[Crossref]
  • [16] Alagona P., Beyond LDL Cholesterol: The Role of Elevated Triglycerides and Low HDL Cholesterol in Residual CVD Risk Remaining After Statin Therapy, Am. J. Manag. Care, 2009, 15, S65–S73
  • [17] Fruchart J.C., Sacks F., Hermans M.P., Assmann G., Brown W., Ceska R., et al., The Residual Risk Reduction Initiative: a call to action to reduce residual vascular risk in patients with dyslipidemia, Am. J. Cardiol., 2008, 102,Suppl 1, 1K–34K http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.10.002[WoS][Crossref]
  • [18] Manocha A., Srivastava LM., Triglycerides as independent risk factor in coronary heart disease: emerging trends in the post prandial state, J. Med. Sci., 2002, 5, 7–16
  • [19] Vulić D., Measures of Secondary Prevention of Coronary Disease, Balneoclimatologia, 2007, 31, 42–62
  • [20] Miller M., Cannon C.P., Murphy S.A., Qin J., Ray K.K., Braunwald E., Impact of triglyceride levels beyond lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol after acute coronary syndrome in the PROVE IT-TIMI 22 trial, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., 2008, 51, 724–730 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2007.10.038[Crossref]
  • [21] Genest J.J. Jr, Martin-Munley S.S., McNamara J.R., Ordovas J.M., Jenner J., Myers R.H., et al., Familial lipoprotein disorders in patients with premature coronary artery disease, Circulation, 1992, 85, 2025–2033
  • [22] Schwartz G.G., Olsson A.G., Ezekowitz M.D., Ganz P., Oliver M.F., Waters D., et al., Effects of atorvastatin on early recurrent ischemic events in acute coronary syndromes: the MIRACL study: a randomized controlled trial, JAMA, 2001, 285, 1711–1718 http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.285.13.1711[Crossref]
  • [23] Rasmussen J.N., Chong A., Alter D.A., Relationship Between Adherence to Evidence-Based Pharmacotherapy and Long-term Mortality After Acute Myocardial Infarction, JAMA, 2007, 297, 177–186 http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.297.2.177[Crossref]
  • [24] Kanadaşi M., Cayli M., Demirtaş M., Inal T., Demir M., Koç M., et al., The effect of early statin treatment on inflammation and cardiac events in acute coronary syndrome patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, Heart Vessels, 2006, 21, 291–297 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00380-005-0901-1[Crossref]
  • [25] Athyros V.G., Papageorgiou A.A., Mercouris B.R., Athyrou V.V., Symeonidis A.N., Basayannis E.O., et al., Treatment with atorvastatin to the National Cholesterol Educational Program goal versus ‘usual’ care in secondary coronary heart disease prevention. The GREek Atorvastatin and Coronaryheart-disease Evaluation (GREACE) study, Curr. Med. Res. Opin. 2002, 18,4, 220–228 http://dx.doi.org/10.1185/030079902125000787[Crossref]
  • [26] Fletcher G.F., Balady G.J., Blair S.N., Blumenthal J., Caspersen C., Chaitman B., et al., Statement on exercise: benefits and recommendations for physical activity programs for all Americans, Circulation, 1996, 94, 857–862
  • [27] O’Connor G.T., Buring J.E., Yusuf S., Goldhaber S.Z., Olmstead E.M., Paffenbarger R.S., et al., An overview of randomized trials of rehabilitation with exercice after myocardial infarction, Circulation, 1989, 80, 234–244
  • [28] Kosteva K., Wood D.A., De Bacquer D., Heidrich J., De Backer G, on behalf of the EUROASPIRE II Study Group, Cardiac rehabilitation for coronary patients: lifestyle, risk factor and therapeutic management. Results from EUROSPIRE II survey, Eur. Heart J. Suppl., 2004, 6,Suppl J, J17–J26
  • [29] Witt B. J., Jacobsen S.J., Weston S.A., Killian J. M., Meverden R. A., Allison T., et al., Cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction in the community, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., 2004, 44, 988–996 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2004.05.062[Crossref]
  • [30] Taylor R.S., Brown A., Ebrahim S., Jolliffe J., Noorani H., Rees K., et al., Exercise-based rehabilitation for patients with coronary heart disease: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am. J. Med., 2004, 116, 682–692 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2004.01.009[Crossref]
  • [31] Unal B., Critchley J.A., Capewell S., Explaining the decline in coronary heart disease mortality in England and Wales between 1981. and 2000., Circulation, 2004, 109, 1101–1107 http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000118498.35499.B2[Crossref]
  • [32] Murchie P., Campbell N.C., Ritchie L.D., Simpson J.A., Thain J., Secondary prevention clinics for coronary heart disease: four year follow up of a randomised controlled trial in primary care, BMJ, 2003, 326, 84 http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.326.7380.84[Crossref]

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.