Elevated pulse wave velocity (PWV) reflects increased arterial stiffness. Several studies have investigated PWV in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, but direct comparisons with healthy controls were not done. The potential influence of peritoneal transport characteristics on arterial stiffness in PD patients was suggested in recent studies. The aims of this study were to compare PWV in PD patients and healthy volunteers, and to investigate factors associated with increased PWV. The carotid-femoral PWV was measured in 28 PD patients and 28 healthy controls, matched for age and gender. A peritoneal equilibration test (PET) was performed in all PD patients. Based on the PET, patients were classified as: high transporters (H) (n=8), high-average (HA) (n=12), low-average (LA) (n=6), and low transporters (L) (n=2). Six of the PD patients were diabetic. PWV was significantly higher in the PD patients than in the controls (9,9±2,4 vs. 8,0±0,9; p=0,0004). In the PD group, PWV was higher in H/HA than in L/LA patients (10,4 ± 2,5 vs. 8,6 ± 1,0; p=0,008), but all the diabetic patients were in the H/HA group. PWV was significantly higher in diabetic than in non-diabetic PD patients (12,8 ± 2,0 vs. 9,1 ± 1,7; p=0,004). In the PD patients, significant positive correlations were found between PWV and: age, pulse pressure, Kt/V, and duration of PD therapy. In conclusion, the carotid-femoral PWV is elevated in peritoneal dialysis patients. Increased PWV in PD patients is associated with age, diabetic status, and longer duration of PD therapy, but not with this type of peritoneal transport.