The A3243G mutation in the mitochondrial tRNALeu (UUR) gene is one of the most common causes of mitochondrial DNA related disorders. Originally it was described in MELAS syndrome (Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic acidosis, Stroke-like episodes), later it had been found to be associated with various phenotypes. In our study the mutation frequency of the A3243G mtDNA mutation was investigated in patients with maternal sensoneural hearing loss, stroke-like episodes, ataxia and myopathy with undetermined etiology. We screened 631 Hungarian patients in North-East, South-West and Central Hungary between 1999 and 2008 for this mutation. The mtDNA analysis was performed from blood and/or muscle tissue. The A3243G substitution was present in 6 patients in heteroplasmic form. The segregation analysis detected 8 further cases. The frequency of the A3243G mutation was 2.22% in the investigated patients. The A3243G mutation frequency in Hungary does not differ significantly from other countries using similar patient selection criteria, however in Finland a higher mutation rate was found. In studies investigated the mutation frequency of this mutation in diabetes mellitus similarly wide variety was detected as well. We conclude that the study design has a huge impact on the result of the genetic epidemiological investigation analyzing the mutation frequency of the A3243G mutation due to the broad clinical phenotype and the different mutation load in different tissues.