Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results


2010 | 5 | 2 | 203-208

Article title

Nosocomial infections and risk factors in intensive care unit of a university hospital in Turkey


Title variants

Languages of publication



The aim of this study was to determine the types nosocomial infections (NIs) and the risk factors for NIs in the central intensive care unit (ICU) of Trakya University Hospital. The patients admitted to the ICU were observed prospectively by the unit-directed active surveillance method based on patient and the laboratory over a 9-month-period. The samples of urine, blood, sputum or tracheal aspirate were taken from the patients on the first and the third days of their hospitalization in ICU; the patients were cultured routinely. Other samples were taken and cultured if there was suspicion of an infection. Infections were considered as ICU-associated if they developed after 48 hours of hospitalization in the unit and 5 days after discharge from the unit if the patients had been sent to a different ward in the hospital. The rate of NIs in 135 patients assigned was found to be 68%. The most common infection sites were lower respiratory tract, urinary tract, bloodstream, catheter site and surgical wound. Hospitalization in ICU for more than 6 days and colonization was found to be the main risk factor for NIs. Prolonged mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy, as well as frequently changed nasogastric catheterization, were found to be risk factors for lower respiratory tract infections. For bloodstream infections, both prolonged insertion of and frequent change of arterial catheters, and for urinary tract infections, female gender, period and repeating of urinary catheterization were risk factors. A high prevalence rate of nosocomial infections was found in this study. Invasive device use and duration of use continue to greatly influence the development of nosocomial infection in ICU. Important factors to prevent nosocomial infections are to avoid long hospitalization and unnecessary device application. Control and prevention strategies based on continuing education of healthcare workers will decrease the nosocomial infections in the intensive care unit.










Physical description


1 - 4 - 2010
17 - 4 - 2010


  • Department of Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology, School of Medicine, Mustafa Kemal University, 31100, Hatay, Turkey
  • Department of Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology, School of Medicine, On Sekiz Mart University, 17100, Çanakkale, Turkey
  • Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, School of Medicine, Trakya University, P22030, Edirne, Turkey
  • Department of Infectious Disease and Clinical Microbiology, School of Medicine, On Sekiz Mart University, 17100, Çanakkale, Turkey


  • [1] Weber DJ, Raasch R, Rutala WA. Nosocomial infections in the ICU: The growing importance of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Chest. 1999;115(suppl): 34–41 http://dx.doi.org/10.1378/chest.115.suppl_1.34S[Crossref]
  • [2] Akalın H., Dirençli bakterilerin neden olduğu Nozokomiyal infeksiyonlar ve infeksiyon kontrolü, Turkiye Klinikleri J Microb Infect, 2003, 2, 104–107
  • [3] Shlaes D.M., Gerding D.N., John J.F. Jr, Craig W.A., Bornstein D.L., Duncan R.A. et al., Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America and Infectious Diseases Society of America Joint Committee on the prevention of antimicrobial resistance: guidelines for the prevention of antimicrobial resistance in hospitals, Clin Infect Dis, 1997, 25, 584–599 http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/513766[Crossref]
  • [4] Souweine B., Traore O., Aublet-Cuvelier B., Bret L., Sirot J., Laveran H., Deteix P., Role of infection control measures in limiting morbidity associated with multi-resistant organisms in critically ill patients, J Hosp Infect, 2000, 45, 107–116 http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/jhin.2000.0734[Crossref]
  • [5] Horan T.C., Gaynes R.P., Surveillance of nosocomial infections, In: Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control, 3rd ed., Mayhall CG, editor, Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, p. 1659–1702, 2004
  • [6] National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System Report, Data Summary from January 1992–June 2001, issued August 2001, Am J Infect Control, 2001, 29, 404–421 http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mic.2001.119952[Crossref]
  • [7] Cetin B.C., Turgut H., Kaleli I., Yalçin A.N., Orhan N., Nosocomial infections in the intensive care unit of the Hospital Pamukkale University Medical School, Turkish J Hosp Infect, 2002, 6, 98–101
  • [8] Mutlu B., Akhan S.C., Gündes S., Altındag N., Vahaboglu H., Prevalence of nosocomial infections in intensive care unit of Kocaeli University Hospital, Turkish J Klimik, 2001, 14, 89–90
  • [9] Klavs I., Lužnik T.B., Škerl M., Grgič-Vitek M., Zupanc T.L., Dolinšek M. et al, Prevalance of and risk factors for hospital-acquired infections in Slovenia-results of the first national survey, 2001, J Hosp Infect, 2003, 54, 149–157 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0195-6701(03)00112-9[Crossref]
  • [10] Urli T., Perone G., Acquarolo A., Zappa S., Antonini B., Candiani A., Surveillance of infections acquired in intensive care: usefulness in clinical practice, J Hosp Infect, 2002, 52, 130–1355 http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/jhin.2002.1271[Crossref]
  • [11] Kim J.M., Park E.S., Jeong J.S., Kim K.M., Kim J.M., Oh H.S. et al, Multicenter surveillance study for nosocomial infections in major hospitals in Korea, Am J Infect Control, 2000, 28, 454–458 http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mic.2000.107592[Crossref]
  • [12] Girou E., Stephan F., Novara A., Safar M., Risk factors and outcome of nosocomial infections: results of a matched case-control study of ICU patients, Am J Crit Care Med, 1998, 157,1151–1158 [Crossref]
  • [13] McCusker M.E., Pèrissè A.R.S., Roghmann M.C., Severity of illness markers as predictors of nosocomial infection in adult intensive care unit patients, Am J Infect Control, 2002, 30,139–144 http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mic.2002.121662[Crossref]
  • [14] Finkelstein R., Rabino G., Kassis I., Mahamid E., Device-associated, device-day infection rates in an Israeli adult general intensive care unit, J Hosp Infect, 2000, 44, 200–205 http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/jhin.1999.0682[Crossref]
  • [15] Leblecioğlu H, Nozokomiyal Üriner Sistem Enfeksiyonları, Turkiye Klinikleri J Int Med Sci, 2007, 3, 26–33
  • [16] Raad I.I., Darouiche R.O., Catheter-related septicemia: risk reduction, Infect Med, 1996, 3, 807–823
  • [17] Gusmāo M.E.N., Dourado I., Fiaccone R.L., Nosocomial pneumonia in the intensive care unit of a Brazilian university hospital: an analysis of the time span from admission to disease onset, Am J Infect Control, 2004, 32, 209–214 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2003.11.003[Crossref]
  • [18] Tissot E., Limat S., Cornette C., Capellier G., Risk factors for catheter-associated bacteriuria in a medical intensive care unit, Eur J Clin Mirobiol Infect Dis, 2001, 20, 260–262 [Crossref]
  • [19] Leone M., Garnier F., Avidan M., Martin C., Catheter-associated urinary tract infections in intensive care units, Microbes Infect, 2004, 6, 1026–1032 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2004.05.016[Crossref]
  • [20] Apostolopoulou E., Bakakos P., Katostaras T., Gregorakos L., Incidence and risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia in 4 multidisciplinary intensive care units in Athens, Greece. Respir Care, 2003, 48, 681–688
  • [21] Meric M., Wilke A., Caglayan C., Toker K., Intensive care unit-acquired infections: incidence, risk factors and associated mortality in a Turkish university hospital. Jpn J Infect Dis, 2005, 58, 297–302

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.