We aimed to evaluate the risk factors for VRE colonization in neonatal intensive care units. In December 2007, we identified a neonate with VRE infection (urinary tract infection and we performed blood and stool cultures for VRE until the last colonized patient was discharged from our clinic. All the neonates hospitalized in NICU during December 2007 to January 2008. Active surveillance cultures for VRE fecal carriage was carried out in neonatal intensive care unit. Resistance to vancomycin was detected by the E-test method. Epidemiological data was recorded for all patients included in the study and was used for the risk factors. Totally 54 infants in NICU were screened for VRE colonization. Totally 11 infants (20%) were colonized with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. The average duration of all antimicrobial therapy was significantly longer in colonized patients. The infants who were hospitalized for more than 10 days were found to be significantly more colonized with VRE when compared to the infants with shorter hospital stay (p<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between VRE colonized and non-colonized infants in respect to sex, to third generation cephalosporin usage, glycopeptide usage, presence of prematurity, presence of mechanical ventilation(p> 0.05). The premature infants and the mature infants were under risk of VRE colonization. Longer duration of hospitalization and antimicrobial usage were the prominent risk factors. Since infants in neonatal intensive care units were under risk of infections, periodic active surveillance cultures should be combined with logical antimicrobial therapy.