Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results


2009 | 4 | 3 | 272-278

Article title

The concentration of uric acid in patients with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases


Title variants

Languages of publication



The association of elevated serum uric acid (hyperuricemia, gout) with the presence of classical coronary risk factors and coronary artery disease (CAD) or myocardial infarction (MI) has been analysed in many epidemiological studies. Numerous studies have revealed that hypertension, high body mass index (BMI), lipid disorders (especially raised triglyceride (TG) levels and low high dense lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level), and increased creatinine or insulin levels have caused hyperuricemia. Gout has often occurred with typical disorders for the metabolic syndrome X. Significant correlation of the serum uric level and the CAD presence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis confirmed by coronary angiography has been observed in women. Hyperuricemia has also indirect influence on progress of CAD by physical activity restriction, what causes sedentary mode of life and lead to obesity. Therefore, we conducted our study in order to estimate uric acid levels in patients with metabolic syndrome and coexisting cardiovascular system diseases.










Physical description


1 - 9 - 2009
3 - 7 - 2009


  • Department of Internal Diseases and Cardiological Rehabilitation, Medical University of Lodz, 90-647, Lodz, Poland
  • Department of Internal Diseases and Cardiological Rehabilitation, Medical University of Lodz, 90-647, Lodz, Poland
  • Department of Hypertension, Medical University of Lodz, 90-549, Lodz, Poland
  • Department of Internal Diseases and Cardiological Rehabilitation, Medical University of Lodz, 90-647, Lodz, Poland
  • Department of Internal Diseases and Cardiological Rehabilitation, Medical University of Lodz, 90-647, Lodz, Poland
  • Department of Internal Diseases and Cardiological Rehabilitation, Medical University of Lodz, 90-647, Lodz, Poland


  • [1] Expert Panel on Detection Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Executive Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III), JAMA, 2001, 285, 2486–2497 http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.285.19.2486[Crossref]
  • [2] Ford E.S., Giles W.H., A comparison of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome using two proposed definitions, Diabetes Care, 2003, 26, 575–581 http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.26.3.575[Crossref]
  • [3] International Diabetes Federation. The IDF consensus worldwide definition of the metabolic syndrome, April, 2005: http://www.idf.org/webdata
  • [4] Pearson T.A., Blair S.N., Daniels S.R., Eckel R.H., Fair J.M., Fortmann S.P., AHA Guidelines for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke: 2002 Update: Consensus Panel Guide to Comprehensive Risk Reduction for Adult Patients Without Coronary or Other Atherosclerotic Vascular Diseases. American Heart Association Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee, Circulation, 2002, 106, 388–391
  • [5] Grundy S.M., Hansen B., Smith S.C., Cleeman J.I., Kahn R.A., American Heart Association: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: American Diabetes Association. Clinical management of metabolic syndrome report of the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/American Diabetes Association conference on scientific issues related to management, Circulation, 2004, 109, 551–556
  • [6] Isomaa B., Almgren P., Tuomi T., Forsen B., Lahti K., Nissen M., Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome, Diabetes Care, 2001, 24, 683–689 http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.24.4.683[Crossref]
  • [7] Lakka H.M., Laaksonen D.E., Lakka T.A., Niskanen L.K., Kumpusalo E., Tuomilehto J., The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men, JAMA, 2002, 288, 2709–2716 http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.288.21.2709[Crossref]
  • [8] Pasceri V., Willerson J.T., Yeh T., Direct proinflammatory effect of C-reactive protein on human endothelial cells, Circulation, 2000, 102, 2165–2168 [Crossref]
  • [9] Yarnell J.W., Sweetnam P.M., Rumley A., Lowe G.D., Lifestyle and hemostatic risk factors for ischemic heart disease. The Caerphilly Study, Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol., 2000, 20, 271–279 [Crossref]
  • [10] Doehner W., Schoene N., Rauchhaus M., Leyva-Leon F., Pavitt D.V., Reaveley D.A., Effects of xanthine oxidase inhibition with allopurinol on endothelial function and peripheral blood flow in hyperuricemic patients with chronic heart failure: results from 2 placebo-controlled studies, Circulation, 2002, 105, 2619–2624 http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000017502.58595.ED[Crossref]
  • [11] Frohlich E.D., Uric acid: a risk factor for coronary heart disease, JAMA, 1993, 270, 354–359 http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.270.3.378[Crossref]
  • [12] Stanton J.R., Freis E.D., Serum uric acid concentration in essential hypertension, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med, 1947, 66, 193–194 [Crossref]
  • [13] Sudstrőm J., Sullivan L., D’Agostino R.B., Relations of serum uric acid to longitudinal blood pressure tracking and hypertension incidence, Hypertension, 2005, 45, 28–33 [Crossref]
  • [14] Alper A.B. Jr., Chen W., Yau L., Srinivasan S.R., Berenson G.S., Hamm L.L., Childhood uric acid predicts adult blood pressure: the Bogalusa Heart Study, Hypertension, 2005, 45, 34–38 [Crossref]
  • [15] Freedeman D.S., Williamson D.F., Grunter E.W., Relation of serum uric acid to mortality and ischemic heart disease. The NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study, Am. J. Epidemiol., 1995, 141, 637–644
  • [16] Kostka-Jeziorny K., Tykarski A., Związek hiperurykemii z innymi czynnikami ryzyka sercowo-naczyniowego u pacjentów z pierwotnym, nieleczonym nadciśnieniem tętniczym w populacji badania RISK, Nadciśnienie Tętnicze, 2008, 12, 190–199 (in Polish)
  • [17] Berkowitz D., Gout, hyperlipidemia and diabetes interrelationships, JAMA, 1966, 197, 117–122 http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.197.2.77[Crossref]
  • [18] Mikkelsen W.M., The possible associations of hyperuricemia and/or gout with diabetes mellitus, Arth. Reum., 1965, 8, 853–863 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.1780080450[Crossref]
  • [19] Reed D., Labarthe D., Stallones R., Epidemiologic studies of serum uric acid levels among Micronesian, Arth. Rheum., 1972, 15, 38–43
  • [20] Myers A.R., Relationship of serum uric acid to risk factors in coronary heart disease, Am. J. Med., 1968, 45, 520–534 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0002-9343(68)90168-X[Crossref]
  • [21] Yano K., Rhoads G., Kagan A., Epidemiology of serum uric acid among 8000 Japanese men in Hawaii, J. Chronic. Dis., 1977, 30, 171–184 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9681(77)90083-2[Crossref]
  • [22] Klein R., Klein B., Cornoni J., Serum uric acid:its relationship to coronary heart disease, risk factors and cardiovascular disease, Arch. Intern. Med., 1973, 132, 401–409 http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.132.3.401[Crossref]
  • [23] Herman J.B., Medalie J.H., Groen J.J., Diabetes prevalence and serum uric acid. Observation among 10000 men in survey of ischemic heart disease in Israel, Diabetes, 1967, 16, 858–868
  • [24] Herman J.B., Keyman A., Hyperglycemia and uric acid, Isr. J. Med. Sci., 1969, 5, 1048–1053
  • [25] Padova J., Patchefsky A., Onesti G., The effect of glucose loads on renal uric acid excretion in diabetic patients, Metabolism., 1964, 13, 507–511 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0026-0495(64)90137-4[Crossref]
  • [26] Bedir A., Topbas M., Tanyeri F., Alvur M., Arik N., Leptin might be a regulator of serum uric acid concentration in humans, Jpn. Heart J., 2003, 44, 527–536 http://dx.doi.org/10.1536/jhj.44.527[Crossref]
  • [27] Modan M., Halkin H., Karasik A., Elevated serum uric acid - a face of hyperinsulinaemia. Diabetologia, 1987, 30, 713–719 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00296994[Crossref]
  • [28] Patel P.D., Arora R.R., Uric acid and xanthine oxidase: perspectives in chronic heart failure, Arch. Med. Sci., 2008, 4, 219–225
  • [29] Bickel C., Rupprecht H.J., Blankenberg S., Rippin G., Hafner G., Daunhauer A., Hofmann K.P., Meyer J., Serum uric acid as an independent predictor of mortality in patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease., Am. J. Cardiol., 2002, 89, 12–17 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9149(01)02155-5[Crossref]
  • [30] Okrasa-Bylica A., Paradowski A., Matysek J., Czubek U., Piwowarska W., Sex hormone plasma levels in premenopausal women with coronary heart disease, Cardiol. J. 2006, 13, 423–426
  • [31] Agamah E.S., Srinivasan S.R., Weber L.S., Berenson G.S., Serum uric acid and its relation to cardiovascular disease risk factors in children and young adults from a biracial community: the Bogalusa Heart Study, J. Lab. Clin. Med., 1991, 118, 241–249
  • [32] Rathmann W., Funkhouser E., Dyer A.R., Roseman J.M., Relations of hyperuricemia with the various components of the insulin resistence syndrome in young black and white adults: the CARDIA study. Coronary artery risk development in young adults, Ann. Epidemiol., 1998, 8, 250–261 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1047-2797(97)00204-4[Crossref]
  • [33] Matsuura F., Yamashita S., Nakamura T., Effect of visceral fat accumulation on uric acid metabolism in male obese subjects: visceral fat obesity is linked more closely to overproduction of uric acid than subcutaneous fat obesity, Metabolism, 1998, 47, 929–933 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0026-0495(98)90346-8[Crossref]
  • [34] Bonora E., Targher G., Zenere M.B., Relationship of uroic acid concentration to cardiovascular risk factors in young men. Role of obesity and central fat distribution. The Verona Young Men Atherosclerosis Risk Factors Study, Int. J. Obes., 1996, 20, 975–980
  • [35] Feig D.I., Johnson R.J., Hyperuricemia in childhood primary hypertension, Hypertension, 2003, 42, 247–252 http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.0000085858.66548.59[Crossref]
  • [36] Tykarski A., Mechanizm hiperurykemii oraz ocena wpływu leków hipotensyjnych na transport kwasu moczowego i jego prekursorów w nefronie w nadciśnieniu tętniczym pierwotnym. Praca habilitacyjna. Akademia Medyczna im. Karola Marcinkowskiego w Poznaniu. Poznań 1997 (in Polish)
  • [37] Zalokar J., Lelllouch J., Claude J.R., Kuntz D., Epidemiology of serum uric acid and gout in Frenchmen, J. Chronic. Dis., 1974, 27, 59–75 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9681(74)90008-3[Crossref]
  • [38] Lee J., Sparrow D., Vokonas S., Uric acid and Coronary Heart Disease Risk: Evidence for a Role of Uric acid in the Obesity-Insulin Resistance Syndrome, Am. J. Epidemiol., 1995, 142, 3–8
  • [39] Zoccali C., Maio R., Mallamaci F., Sesti G., Perticone F., Urid acid and endothelial dysfunction in essentiali hypertension, J. Am. Soc. Nephrol., 2006, 17, 1466–1471 http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2005090949[Crossref]
  • [40] Perlstein T.S., Gumieniak O., Hopkins P.N., Murphey L.J., Brown N.J., Williams G.H., Uric acid and the state of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system in humans, Kidney Int., 2004, 66, 1465–1470 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1755.2004.00909.x[Crossref]
  • [41] Doehner W., Anker S.D., Filippatos G.S., Uric acid in chronic heart failure: marker or therapeutic target? Arch. Med. Sci., 2008, 4, 226–228
  • [42] Barylski M, Kowalczyk E, Banach M, Ciecwierz J, Pawlicki L, Kowalski J., Plasma Total Antioxidant Activity in Comparison With Plasma NO and VEGF Levels in Patients With Metabolic Syndrome. Angiology, 2009, 60, 87–92 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003319708327165[Crossref][WoS]
  • [43] Banach M, Rysz J, Goch A, Mikhailidis DP, Rosano GM., The role of trimetazidine after acute myocardial infarction. Curr. Vasc. Pharmacol., 2008, 6, 282–291 http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/157016108785909788[Crossref]
  • [44] Boncler M., Gresner P., Nocun M., Rywaniak J., Dolnik M., Rysz J., et al., Elevated cholesterol reduces acetylsalicylic acid-mediated platelet acetylation, Biochim. Biophys. Acta., 2007, 1770, 1651–1659 [WoS][Crossref]

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.