Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2009 | 4 | 2 | 179-183
Article title

Causes of death in HIV-infected patients in the region of Lodz, Poland from 1995 through 2005

Title variants
Languages of publication
In 2005, 440 patients infected with HIV were registered in the AIDS center in Lodz, Poland. The aim of our study was to analyze the causes of death in 70 fatal cases. We analyzed the data from 70 fatal cases from 1995 through 2005. Of the fatal cases we investigated, 10 were in women and 60 in men. The most common route of HIV transmission was intravenous drug use (50%). At the time of death, the mean age of patients was 36,48 years, and the mean CD4 count was 115,14 cells per microliter. The mean time from HIV diagnosis to death was 3,75 years. The leading cause of death in the group from 1995 through 2004 was AIDS. In 2002, liver diseases resulting from hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were the cause of death in two patients. In 2005, two patients died as a result of myocardial infarction. The prevalence of fatal cases decreased from 9,09 % in 1995 to 1,59 % in 2005. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was found in 4 of 62 patients (6,45%), anti-HCV in 28 patients (45,16%), and both hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HCV infection in 5 patients (8,07%). Coinfections occurred most frequently in intravenous drug users (IDUs). In conclusions: (1) AIDS is still the leading cause of death in HIV-positive patients in the Lodz region; (2) the emerging cause of death in HIV-positive patients is liver disease as the sequel of HBV and HCV coinfections; (3) heart disease is becoming an important cause of death in HIV-positive patients.
Physical description
1 - 6 - 2009
27 - 3 - 2009
  • [1] Crum N.F., Riffenburgh R.H., Wegner S., Agan B.K., Tasker S.A., Spooner K.M. et al., Comparisons of causes of death and mortality rates among HIV infected persons: analysis of the pre-, early, and late HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) eras, J. Acquir. Immune. Defic. Syndr., 2006, 41, 194–200.[Crossref]
  • [2] Hogg R.S., O’shaughnessy M.V., Gataric N., et al., Decline in deaths from AIDS due to new antiretrovirals, Lancet, 1997, 349, 1294[Crossref]
  • [3] Jensen-Fangel S., Pedersen L., Pedersen C., Larsen C.S., Tauris P., Møller A., et al., Low mortality in HIV-infected patients starting highly active antiretroviral therapy: a comparison with the general population, AIDS, 2004, 18, 89–97[Crossref]
  • [4] Kumar A., Kilaru K.R., Forde S., Roach T.C., Changing HIV Infection-Related Mortality Rate and Causes of Death Among Persons With HIV Infection Before and After the Introduction of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: Analysis of All HIV-Related Deaths in Barbados, 1997–2005, J. Int. Assoc. Physicians AIDS Care (Chic Ill), 2006, 5, 109–114[Crossref]
  • [5] Mocroft A., Ledergerber B., Katlama C., Kirk O., Reiss P., d’Arminio Monforte A., et al., Decline in the AIDS and death rates in the EuroSIDA study: an observational study, Lancet, 2003, 362, 22–29[Crossref]
  • [6] Moore R.D., Chaisson R.E., Natural history of HIV infection in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy, AIDS, 1999, 13, 1933–1942[Crossref]
  • [7] van Sighem A.I., van de Wiel M.A., Ghani A.C., Jambroes M., Reiss P., Gyssens I.C. et al., Mortality and progression to AIDS after starting highly active antiretroviral therapy, AIDS, 2003, 17, 2227–2236[Crossref]
  • [8] Sackoff J.E., Hanna D.B., Pfeiffer M.R., Torian L.V., Causes of death among persons with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: New York City, Ann. Intern. Med., 2006, 145, 397–406
  • [9] Cohen M.H., French A.L., Benning L., Kovacs A., Anastos K., Young M., et al., Causes of death among women with human immunodeficiency virus infection in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy, Am. J. Med., 2002, 113, 91–98[Crossref]
  • [10] Little S.J., Holte S., Routy J.P., Daar E.S., Markowitz M., Collier A.C., et al., Antiretroviral-drug resistance among patients recently infected with HIV, N. Engl. J. Med., 2002, 347, 385–394[Crossref]
  • [11] Krentz H.B., Kliewer G., Gill M.J., Changing mortality rates and causes of death for HIV-infected individuals living in Southern Alberta, Canada from 1984 to 2003, HIV Med., 2005, 6, 99–106[Crossref]
  • [12] Lewden C., Raffi F., Chêne G., Sobel A., Leport C., Mortality in a cohort of HIV-infected adults started on a protease inhibitor-containing therapy, J. Acquir. Immune. Defic. Syndr., 2001, 26, 480–482
  • [13] Bica I., McGovern B., Dhar R., Stone D., McGowan K., Scheib R., et al., Increasing mortality due to end-stage liver disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection, Clin. Infect. Dis., 2001, 32, 492–497[Crossref]
  • [14] Bonnet F., Lewden C., May T., Heripret L., Jougla E., Bevilacqua S., et al., Opportunistic infections as causes of death in HIV-infected patients in the HAART era in France, Scand. J. Infect. Dis., 2005, 37, 482–487[Crossref]
  • [15] Weber R., Sabin C.A., Friis-Moller N., Reiss P., El-Sadr W.M., Kirk O., et al., Liver-related deaths in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: the D:A:D study, Arch. Intern. Med., 2006, 166, 1632–1641[Crossref]
  • [16] Sulkowski M.S., Thomas D.L., Chaisson R.E., Moore R.D., Hepatotoxicity associated with antiretroviral therapy in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus and the role of hepatitis C or B virus infection, JAMA, 2000, 283, 74–80[Crossref]
  • [17] Jain M.K., Skiest D.J., Cloud J.W., Jain C.L., Burns D., Berggren R.E., Changes in mortality related to human immunodeficiency virus infection: comparative analysis of inpatient deaths in 1995 and in 1999–2000, Clin. Infect. Dis., 2003, 36, 1030–1038[Crossref]
  • [18] Lewden C., Bonnet F., Bevilacqua S. Heripret L., May T., Morlat P., et al., Causes of death in HIV-infected French drug users, 1995–2000, Ann. Med. Interne. (Paris), 2002, 153,7 Suppl., 2S4–2S10
  • [19] Rosenthal E., Poiree M., Pradier C. Perronne C., Salmon-Ceron D., Geffray L., et al., Mortality due to hepatitis C-related liver disease in HIV-infected patients in France (Mortavic 2001 study), AIDS, 2003, 17, 1803–1809[Crossref]
  • [20] Salmon-Ceron D., Lewden C., Morlat P. Bévilacqua S., Jougla E., Bonnet F., et al., Liver disease as a major cause of death among HIV infected patients: role of hepatitis C and B viruses and alcohol, J. Hepatol., 2005, 42, 799–805[Crossref]
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.