In 2005, 440 patients infected with HIV were registered in the AIDS center in Lodz, Poland. The aim of our study was to analyze the causes of death in 70 fatal cases. We analyzed the data from 70 fatal cases from 1995 through 2005. Of the fatal cases we investigated, 10 were in women and 60 in men. The most common route of HIV transmission was intravenous drug use (50%). At the time of death, the mean age of patients was 36,48 years, and the mean CD4 count was 115,14 cells per microliter. The mean time from HIV diagnosis to death was 3,75 years. The leading cause of death in the group from 1995 through 2004 was AIDS. In 2002, liver diseases resulting from hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were the cause of death in two patients. In 2005, two patients died as a result of myocardial infarction. The prevalence of fatal cases decreased from 9,09 % in 1995 to 1,59 % in 2005. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was found in 4 of 62 patients (6,45%), anti-HCV in 28 patients (45,16%), and both hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HCV infection in 5 patients (8,07%). Coinfections occurred most frequently in intravenous drug users (IDUs). In conclusions: (1) AIDS is still the leading cause of death in HIV-positive patients in the Lodz region; (2) the emerging cause of death in HIV-positive patients is liver disease as the sequel of HBV and HCV coinfections; (3) heart disease is becoming an important cause of death in HIV-positive patients.