The recent clinical data indicate that the initial and the early stages of chronic renal failure (CRF) may lead to increased incidence of cardiovascular complications and increased extent of coronary artery disease (CAD). This retrospective study was aimed to determine the effects of coexisting diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM-2) and the extent of atherosclerosis in coronary vessels in patients with mildly reduced kidney function (glomerular filtration rate GFR = 89–60 ml/min) and moderately reduced kidney function (GFR = 59–30 ml/min). The study patients included 53 subjects with creatinine concentration above 120 μmol/l as a cut-off level for the initial stage and compensated CRF. The distributions of coronary artery stenosis were also analysed with respect to DM-2 coexistence and levels of haemoglobin glikolised (HbA1c). The odds ratio of pathological changes in coronary arteries in patients with GFR = 44–30 ml/min, with respect to the number of affected vessels - only one, more than one or more than two - were 7.22, 4.90 and 3.55, respectively. In CRF patients with GFR = 60–89 ml/min the odds ratio of one, more than one and more than two vessels with stenosis and CAD was 1.93, 1.70 and 1.53, respectively. DM-2 was not related to the risk of significant coronary artery stenosis and did not enhance the pre-existing changes in the study setting. Our results demonstrate that the initial and the early stages of CRF were significant risk factors for coronary stenoses and for enhancing the pre-existing changes.