Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results


2008 | 3 | 4 | 464-469

Article title

The major clinical outcomes of diabetic foot infections: One center experience


Title variants

Languages of publication



Diabetes mellitus with its limb and life-threatening complications such as diabetic foot infection and amputation are increasing at epidemic rates all over the world. The objective of this study was to determine the rate of lower extremity amputation, the risk factors and the bacteriologic profile for diabetic foot lesions. The records of all 84 patients with diabetic foot infections of a large general hospital over a 4-year period were retrospectively included. The most commonly isolated pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus (39%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14%), Proteus mirabilis (14%), Escherichia coli (14%), Group B streptococci (12%), and Klebsiella pneumonia (8%). The variables, independently associated with higher foot infections, were inadequate diabetic regulation (93%), peripheral neuropathy (88.1%), peripheral vascular disease (73.8%), smoking (56%), past history of ulcer (28.5%), penetrating injury (20.3%), inadequate foot wear (15%) and Charcot osteoartropathy (10.7%). The general amputation rate was 38.1%. Diabetic foot ulcers and its complication rates including infection, gangrene and lower extremity amputation in Turkey are still high. Preventive care of the foot in patients with diabetes mellitus is extremly important. Therefore early diagnosing of risk factors for diabetic foot infections in the primary care setting and their adequate therapy under multidisciplinary approach should not be neglected.










Physical description


1 - 12 - 2008
22 - 10 - 2008


  • Department of Family Medicine, Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital, 06540, Cankaya, Ankara, Turkey
  • Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital, 06540, Cankaya, Ankara, Turkey
  • Department of Cardiology, Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital, 06540, Cankaya, Ankara, Turkey
  • Department of Internal Medicine, Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital, 06540, Cankaya, Ankara, Turkey


  • [1] Satman I., Yilmaz T., Sengul A., The TURDEP Group: Population-based study of diabetes and risk characteristics in Turkey: results of the Turkish Diabetes Epidemiology Study, Diabetes Care, 2002, 25, 1551–1556 http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.25.9.1551[Crossref]
  • [2] The International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot: International Consensus on the Diabetic Foot. Amsterdam; 1999. International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot: International Consensus on the Diabetic Foot
  • [3] Sims S.D., Cavanagh R.P., Ulbrecht S.J., Risk factors in the infected diabetic foot. Recognition and management, Physical Therapy., 1988, 68 (12), 1887–1903
  • [4] Lipsky B.A., Diabetic foot infections, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Treatment, Int. J. Dermatol., 1991, 30, 560–562 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-4362.1991.tb02640.x[Crossref]
  • [5] Edmonds M.E., Experience in a multidisciplinary diabetic foot clinic. In: Connor H., Boulton A.J., Ward J.D., The foot in diabetes: proceedings of the 1st National Conference on the Diabetic Foot. Malvern, May. 1986. Chichester NY, Wiley, 1987, 121–131
  • [6] Diabetes and research in Europa: the Saint Vincent decleration. Diabetic Med., 1990, 7, 360
  • [7] Armstrong D.G., Lavery L.A., Van Houtum W.H., Seasonal variations in lower extremity amputation, J. Foot Ankle Surg., 1997, 36, 146–150 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1067-2516(97)80062-2[Crossref]
  • [8] Apelqvist J., Larsson J., What is the most effective way to reduce incidence of amputation in the diabetic foot? Diabetes Metab. Res., 2000, 16, 75–83 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1520-7560(200009/10)16:1+<::AID-DMRR139>3.0.CO;2-8[Crossref]
  • [9] Bagdade J.D., Root R.K., Bulger R.J., Impaired leucocyte function in patients with poorly controlled diabetes, Diabetes, 1974, 23, 9–15 [Crossref][PubMed]
  • [10] Lipsky B.A., Berendt A.R., Deery H.G., Infectious Diseases Society of America. Diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot infections, Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006, 117 (7Suppl), 212S–238 http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.prs.0000222737.09322.77[Crossref]
  • [11] Sapico L.F., Witte L.J., Canawati J., The infected foot of the diabetic patient. Quantitative microbiology and analysis of clinical features, Rewiews of Infec Diseases, 1984, 6 (Suppl1), 171–176
  • [12] Wheat L.J., Allen S.D., Henry M., Diabetic foot infections: Bacteriologic analysis. Arch Intern Med., 1986, 146, 1935–1940 http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.146.10.1935[Crossref]
  • [13] Tentolouris N., Jude E.B., Smirnof I., Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: an increasing problem in a diabetic foot clinic, Diabetic Med. Sep. 1999, 16(9), 767–771 http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1464-5491.1999.00132.x[Crossref]
  • [14] Boulton A.J., Hardisty C.A., Betts R.P., Dynamic foot pressure and other studies as diagnostic and management aids in diabetic neuropathy, Diabetes Care, 1983, 6, 26–33 http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.6.1.26[Crossref]
  • [15] Marston W.A., Dermagraft Diabetic Foot Ulcer Study Group. Risk factors associated with healing chronic diabetic foot ulcers: the importance of hyperglycemia, Ostomy Wound Manage. Mar. 2006, 52(3), 26–28, 30, 32 passim
  • [16] Caputo G.M., Joshi N., Weitekamp M.R., Foot infections in patients with diabetes. Am. Fam. Physician, Jul. 1997, 56 (1), 195–202
  • [17] Wagner F.W., The dysvascular foot; a system for diagnosis and treatment, Foot Ankle Int., 1981, 2, 64–122 [Crossref]
  • [18] Wheat L.J., Allen S.D., Henry M., Diabetic foot infections: Bacteriologic analysis, Arch. Intern. Med., 1986, 146, 1935–1940 http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.146.10.1935[Crossref]
  • [19] Apelqvist J., Ragnarson-Tennval G., Persson U., Diabetic foot ulcers in a multidisciplinary setting-An economic analysis of primary healing and healing with amputation, J. Intern. Med., 1994, 235(5), 463–471
  • [20] Gibbons G.W., Elliopoulos G.M., Infection of the diabetic foot. In Kozak G.P., Hoar C.S., Rowbotham J.L., (eds), Management of diabetic foot problems, Philadelphia, W. B. Sounders, 1984, 97
  • [21] Reiber G.E., Pecoraro R.E., Koepsell T.D., Risk factors for amputation in patients with diabetes mellitus: a case control study, Ann. Intern. Med., 1992, 117(2), 97–105
  • [22] Singh N., Armstrong D.G., Lipsky B.A., Preventing foot ulcers in patients with diabetes, JAMA, 2005, 12, 293 (2), 217–228 http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.293.2.217[Crossref]
  • [23] Arslan M., Diabetik ayak sorunları ve güncel yakla§ım. Years Book of Turkish Diabetology, 2004–2005, 8–20
  • [24] Gürlek A., Bayraktar M., Savas C., Amputation rate in 147 Turkish patients with diabetic foot: the Hacettepe University Hospital experience, Exp Cli Endocrinol Diabetes, 1998, 106, 404–409 http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1212006[Crossref]
  • [25] Aksoy D.Y., Gurlek A., Cetinkaya Y., Change in the amputation profile in diabetic foot in a tertiary reference center: efficacy of team working, Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes, 2004, 112(9), 526–530 http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2004-821310[Crossref]

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.