Coffee is a complex mixture of potentially active chemicals. It contains significant amounts of phenolic polymers, chlorogenic acid and also caffeine. Agricultural factors, roasting, blending, and brewing determine coffee’s chemical composition. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that habitual coffee consumption may help to prevent some chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes. Despite reports from the clinical trials of the effect of caffeine on decreasing insulin sensitivity, long-term prospective studies revealed that coffee may improve fasting glucose, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity as well. In the most recent publication habitual coffee drinkers have a lower total and cardiovascular mortality rate among diabetic subjects.