Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2008 | 3 | 1 | 97-104
Article title

Tabacco use in smokeless and smoking forms and its effect on periodontal health in India

Title variants
Languages of publication
The aim of the present study was to establish the relationship between tobacco use and periodontal health in an adult sample in India. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted in a province of southern India. A total of 805 subjects between the ages of 30 and 69 years were interviewed, and clinical examinations were made by three cooperating dentists. The examiners recorded oral mucosal findings, gingivitis, and the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs index using a WHO-621 Trinity probe. Among the 805 participants, 72% were males and 28% were females. Among regular smokers, 98% were males and 2% were females. In the studied population, 64.6% visited the dentist only when they had some dental problems. Oral mucosal findings were present more in of the regular smokers and chewing tobacco users than in the non-consumers. The maximum findings from six sextants indicate that non-consumers exhibited higher rates of healthy periodontium and bleeding on probing but lower rates of pockets than tobacco consumers. The present analysis shows that tobacco use exerts a strong and chronic effect on periodontium and oral mucosa and reduces bleeding on probing.
Physical description
1 - 3 - 2008
1 - 3 - 2008
  • Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Králové, Department of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic
  • Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Králové, Department of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic
  • Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Králové, Department of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic
  • Department of Oral Medicine, Radiology and Diagnosis, SRM Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India
  • Computer Technology Centre, Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
  • Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Králové, Department of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic
  • Department of Dentistry, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic
  • Department of Dentistry, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic
  • [1] Gelskey S.C., Young T.K., Singer D.L., Factors associated with adult periodontitis in a dental teaching clinic population, Community Dent. Oral Epidemiol., 1998, 26, 226–232[Crossref]
  • [2] Paidi S., Pack A.R., Thomson W.M., An example of measurement and reporting of periodontal loss of attachment (LOA) in epidemiological studies: smoking and periodontal tissue destruction, N. Z. Dent. J., 1999, 95, 118–123
  • [3] Tanner A.C.R., Kent R.Jr., Van Dyke T., Sonis S.T., Murray L.A., Clinical and other risk indicators for early periodontitis in adults, J. Periodontol., 2005, 76, 573–581[Crossref]
  • [4] Amarasena N., Ekanayaka A.N.I., Herath L., Miyazaki H., Tobacco use and oral hygiene as risk indicators for periodontitis, Community Dent. Oral Epidemiol., 2003, 31, 158–160[Crossref]
  • [5] Hyman J.J., Reid B.C., Epidemiological risk factors for periodontal loss among adults in the United States, J. Clin. Periodontol., 2003, 30, 230–237[Crossref]
  • [6] Razali M., Palmer R.M., Coward P., Wilson R.F., A retrospective study of periodontal disease severity in smokers and nonsmokers, British Dent. Journal, 2005, 198, 495–498[Crossref]
  • [7] Genco R.J., Current view of risk factors for periodontal diseases, J. Periodontol., 1996, 67, 1041–1049 [Crossref]
  • [8] James J.A., Sayers N.M., Drucker D.B., Hull P.S., Effect of tobacco products on the attachment and growth of periodontal ligament fibroblasts, J. Periodontol., 1999, 70, 518–525[Crossref]
  • [9] Müller H-P., Stadermann S., Heinecke A., Gingival recession in smokers and nonsmokers with minimal periodontal disease, J. Clin. Periodontol., 2002, 29, 129–136[Crossref]
  • [10] Beck J.D., Cusmano L., Green-Helms W., Koch G.G., Offenbacher S., A 5 year study of attachment loss in community-dwelling older adults: incidence dentistry, J.Periodontal Res., 1997, 32, 506–515[Crossref]
  • [11] Winn D.M., Tobacco use and oral diseases, J. Dent. Edu., 2001, 65/4, 306–310
  • [12] Seppo W., Söder P-Ö., Maria R.G., Birgitta S., Björn K., Periodontal disease in a group of Swedish adult snuff and cigarette users, Acta Odontol. Scand., 2004, 62, 333–338[Crossref]
  • [13] Awartani F., al-Jasser N., The effect of smoking on periodontal conditions assessed by CPITN, Odontostomatol. Trop., 1999, 22, 38–40
  • [14] Taani Q., The periodontal status of Jordanian adolescents measured by CPITN, Int. Dent. J., 1995, 45, 382–385
  • [15] Mack F., Mojon P., Budtz-Jorgensen E., Kocher T., Splieth C., Schwahn C., et al., Caries and periodontal disease of the elderly in Pomerania, Germany: results of the study of Health in Pomerania, Gerodontology., 2004, 21, 27–36[Crossref]
  • [16] Rapp G.E., Bardosa Junior Ade A., Mendes A.J., Motta A.C., Biao M.A., Garcia R.V., Technical assessment of WHO-621 periodontal probe made in Brazil, Braz. Dent. J., 2002, 13(1), 61–65
  • [17] Grossi S.G., Zambon J.J., Ho A.W., Koch G., Dunford R.G., Machtei E.E., et al., Assessment of risk for periodontal disease. 1. Risk indicators for attachment loss, J. Periodontol., 1994, 65, 260–267 [Crossref]
  • [18] Hashim R., Thomson W.M., Pack A.R.C., Smoking in adolescence as a predictor of early loss of periodontal attachment, Community Dent. Oral Epidemiol., 2001, 29, 130–135[Crossref]
  • [19] Cutress T.W., Ainamo J., Sardo-Infirri J., The community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN) procedure for population groups and individuals, Int. Dent. J., 1987, 37(4), 222–233
  • [20] Rahman M., Sakamoto J., Fukui T., Bidi smoking and oral cancer: A meta-analysis, Int J Cancer., 2003, 106, 600–604[Crossref]
  • [21] Pakhale S.S., Maru G.B., Distribution of major and minor alkaloids in tobacco, mainstream and sidestream smoke of popular Indian smoking products, Food Chem Tox., 1998, 36, 1131–1138[Crossref]
  • [22] Rani M., Bonu S., Jha P., Nguyen S.N., Jamjoum L., Tobacco use in India: prevalence and predictors of smoking and chewing in a national cross-sectional household survey, Tobacco Control., 2003, 12:e4[Crossref]
  • [23] Torrungruang K., Nisapakultorn K., Sutdhibhisal S., Tamsailom S., Rojanasomsith K., Vanichjakvong O., et al., The effect of cigarette smoking on the severity of periodontal disease among older Thai adults, J. Periodontol., 2005, 76, 566–572[Crossref]
  • [24] Do G.L., Spencer A.J., Roberts-Thomson K., Ha H.D., Smoking as a risk indicatior for periodontal disease in the middle-aged Vietnamese population, Community Dent. Oral Epidemiol., 2003, 31, 437–446[Crossref]
  • [25] Sorensen G., Gupta P.C., Pednekar M.S., Social disparities in tobacco use in Mumbai, India: The roles of occupation, education, and gender, Am J Public Health., 2005, 95, 1003–1008[Crossref]
  • [26] Subramanian S.V., Nandy S., Kelly M., Gordon D., Smith G.D., Patterns and distribution of tobacco consumption in India: cross-sectional multilevel evidence from the 1998-99 national family health survey, British Medical Journal., 2004, 328, 801–806[Crossref]
  • [27] Taybos G., Oral changes associated with tobacco use, Am. J. Med. Sci., 2003, 326, 179–182[Crossref]
  • [28] Dietrich T., Bernimoulin J-P., Glynn J.R., The effect of cigarette smoking on gingival bleeding, J. Periodontol., 2004, 75, 16–22[Crossref]
  • [29] Tomar S.L., Asma S., Smoking-attributable periodontitis in the United States: Findings from NHANES III, J. Periodontol., 2000, 71, 743–751[Crossref]
  • [30] Bergström J., Boström L., Tobacco smoking and periodontal hemorrhagic responsiveness, J. Clin. Periodontol., 2001, 28, 680–685[Crossref]
  • [31] Tada A., Hanada N., Sexual differences in smoking behaviour and dental caries experience in young adults, Public health., 2002, 116, 341–346[Crossref]
  • [32] Page R.C., Morrison E.C., Summary of outcomes and recommendations of the workshop on CPITN, Int. Dent. J., 1994, 44(suppl 1), 589–594
  • [33] Haffajee A.D., Socransky S.S., Relationship of cigarette smoking to attachment level profiles, J. Clin. Periodontol., 2001, 28, 283–295[Crossref]
  • [34] Danielsen B., Manji F., Nagelkerke N., Fejerskov O., Baelum V., Effect of cigarette smoking on the transition dynamics in experimental gingivitis, J. Clin. Periodontol., 1990, 17, 159–164[Crossref]
  • [35] Lie M.A., Timmerman M.F., van der Velden U., van der Weijden G.A., Evaluation of 2 methods to assess gingival bleeding in smokers and nonsmokers in natural and experimental gingivitis, J. Clin. Periodontol., 1998, 25, 695–700
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.