The aim of the study was to test a new model of drug distribution known as unit-dose drug distribution including the effects of implementing this system on total drug consumption, especially in curbing antimicrobial use.The study was carried out in the Department of Surgery at the University Clinical Center in Nis, Serbia. During the first six months of the study (comparative period), drugs were delivered directly from the pharmacy to the urology and orthopedic wards in the traditional way (ward stock system). During the next six months (study period), drugs were delivered directly from the pharmacy to the patients (unit-dose drug distribution system). Drug consumption was measured using the statistical unit defined daily dose (DDD) per 100 bed days according to the anatomical-therapeutic-chemical classification of drugs. Following implementation of the unit-dose drug distribution system, total drug consumption was reduced by 24.34% in the urology ward and by 21.43% in the orthopedic ward. During the comparative period, in the urology and orthopedic wards, systemic antiinfectives (group J) comprised 263.54 and 227.61 DDD/100 bed days or 43.05% and 25.52% of total drug consumption respectively, whereas, during the pilot study period this group of drugs comprised 191.63 and 173.52 DDD/100 bed days or 41.37% and 24.96% of total drug consumption respectively.The unit-dose distribution system of drugs in hospitals leads to a control of drug consumption and substantial savings. Also, the pharmacist-physician interaction began to emerge as an important factor as a direct result of the changes in the drug distribution system.