The short-term effects of ambient black smoke concentrations on total non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory mortalities in Nis, during the 2000-2003 period, were investigated.Daily measurements for black smoke (BS), as well as the daily number of deaths have been collected. Generalised linear models extending Poisson regression were applied. The e.ects of time trend, seasonal variations, days of the week, temperature, humidity and air pressure were adjusted.The per cent increase in the daily number of total deaths associated with a 10 μg/m3 increase in BS was 1.13% (0.08–2.20%). The e.ect size was slightly higher for cardiovascular mortality (1.25%, 95% CI: 0.53–1.97%). There was no signi.cant association between air pollution and respiratory mortality.These results indicate that current levels of ambient BS have signi.cant e.ects on total and cardiovascular mortalities in Nis.