Europium-doped barium aluminate (BaAlxOy:Eu2+) phosphors were obtained at low temperatures (500°C) using the solution - combustion of corresponding metal nitrate-urea solution mixtures. The particle size and morphology and the structural and luminescent properties of the synthesized phosphors were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Electron diffraction spectroscopy (EDS) and photoluminescence (PL). It was found that the change in Ba: Al molar ratios showed greatly influence not only on the particle size and morphology, but also on their PL spectra and crystalline structure. The structure of BaAlxOy nanophosphors changes from a hexagonal Ba2Al10O17 phase for samples with 6:100 molar ratios to a hexagonal BaAl2O4 one with an increase in Ba content. The peak of the emission band occurs at a longer wavelength (around 615 nm) with a decrease in Ba concentration but displays a broad blue-green emission band composed from two emissions with the maximum at 495 and 530nm coming from Eu2+ in two sites for increasing Ba content. The blue-green emission is probably due to the influence of 5d electron states of Eu2+ in the crystal field because of atomic size variation causing crystal defects while the red emission is due to f - f transitions. These findings clearly demonstrate the possibility of fine tuning the colour emission.