Light polarization effects on a holographic grating recording in a glassy chalcogenide a-As40S15Se45 film has been experimentally studied and compared with previously studied glassy molecular azobenzene film 8a at 633, using s − s,p − p, CE-1 and CE-2 circular-elliptic recording-beam polarizations (differing by light electric field rotation directions). The azocompound exhibited much higher self-diffraction efficiency (SDE) and diffraction efficiency whereas chalcogenide was more sensitive. Their recording efficiency polarization dependences also were different. SDE up to 45% was achieved in 8a with p − p and up to 2.6% in a-As40S15Se45 with CE-2 polarized recording beams. The polarization changes in the diffraction process were studied as well in these and other materials (11, 16, 19 and a-As2S3 film, LiTaO3:Fe crystal). It was found that light polarization changes in the process of diffraction from gratings recorded vectorially by s−p polarizations depended on chemical composition, wavelength, and exposure time. Vector gratings with SDE up to 25% were recorded in 8a, rotating a linear polarization by 90°. No light polarization changes were found in azobenzene 19 and chalcogenide films and in LiTaO3:Fe crystal, thus showing a vector recording of scalar holograms. The recording mechanisms in azocompounds and chalcogenides are discussed and compared.