In practically all known methods of nuclear chronometry until now, research has usually taken into account the life-times of only the fundamental states of α-radioactive nuclei. But in the processes of nuclear synthesis in stars and under the influence of constant cosmic radiation on the surfaces of planets the excitations of the α-radioactive nuclei are still ongoing. Between these processes there are states with excited α-particles inside the parent nuclei leading to much smaller life-times. And inside the large masses of stellar, terrestrial and meteoric substances there are transitions between different internal conditions of radioactive nuclei that are accompanied by infinite chains of γ-radiations with subsequent γ-absorptions, further γ-radiations, etc. For a description of the α-decay evolution that accounts for such excited states and multiple γ-radiations and γ-absorptions inside stars, and under the influence of cosmic radiation on the Earth’s surface we present a quantum-mechanical approach, which is based on the generalized Krylov-Fock theorem. A few simple estimations are also presented. These approaches lead to the conclusion that the usual (non-corrected) “nuclear clocks” do really point not to realistic values but to the upper limits of the durations of α-decay in stellar and planet processes.