This paper reports the systematic investigation of europium doped hydroxyapatite (Eu:HAp). A set of complementary techniques, namely Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) technique were used towards attaining a detailed understanding of Eu:HAp. The XPS analysis confirmed the substitution of Ca ions by Eu ions in the Eu:HAp samples. Secondly, Eu:HAp and pure HAp present type IV isotherms with a hysteresis loop at a relative pressure (P/P0) between 0.4 and 1.0, indicating the presence of mesopores. Finally, the in vitro biological effects of Eu:HAp nanoparticles were evaluated by focusing on the F-actin filament pattern and heat shock proteins (Hsp) expression in HEK293 human kidney cell line. Fluorescence microscopy studies of the actin protein revealed no changes of the immunolabelling profile in the renal cells cultured in the presence of Eu:HAp nanoparticles. Hsp60, Hsp70 and Hsp90 expressions measured by Western blot analysis were not affected after 24 and 48 hours exposure. Taken together, these results confirmed the lack of toxicity and the biocompatibility of the Eu:HAp nanoparticles. Consequently, the possibility of using these nanoparticles for medical purposes without affecting the renal function can be envisaged.