Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2012 | 10 | 1 | 71-84
Article title

Application of ICP-MS and various computational methods for drinking water quality assessment from the Silesian District (Southern Poland)

Title variants
Languages of publication
In this study, more than 200 samples of drinking water from taps in the Silesian District (southern Poland) were analyzed. Concentrations of As, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, Te, Tl and V were measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry technique (ICP-MS). The levels of the tested elements generally met European Union regulations. All analytical results were processed using computational methods, including the Pearson and Gini coefficients with the Lorenz curves, one-way ANOVA, the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance, the Mann-Whitney U test, the variance correlation test and the Spearman’s test. In addition, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with Varimax and Cluster Analysis with Ward’s Method were applied. It was shown, that some parameters (e.g. hardness and alkalinity) were highly correlated. The score plot described the degree of mineralization of water samples, so the origin of water could be easily determined. In turn, based on the created dendrogram, the division of samples into several groups (with soft, medium and highly mineralized water) could be deduced.
Physical description
1 - 2 - 2012
24 - 11 - 2011
  • University of Silesia
  • Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Science
  • University of Silesia
  • University of Silesia
  • University of Silesia
  • University of Silesia
  • [1] M. Claes, M. Bagar-Povse, J. Drinovec, B. Holynska, P. Kump, B. Ostachowicz, M. Necemer, M. Olko, R. Van Grieken, D. Węgrzynek, Sci. Total Environ. 207, 141 (1997)[Crossref]
  • [2] Council Directive 98/83/EC of 3 November 1998 on the quality of water intended for human consumption (European Commission, Brussels, 1998)
  • [3] Rozporządzenie Ministra Zdrowia z 29 marca - The Decree of Health Minister from 29th March 2007 about drinking water quality, Journal of Laws of 6th April 2007, Poland, Warsaw (2007) (In Polish)
  • [4] M.J. Lehtola, I.T. Miettinen, T. Lampola, A. Hirvonen, T. Vartiainen, P.J. Martikainen, Water Res. 39, 1962 (2005)[Crossref]
  • [5] L.S. Mc Neill, M. Edwards, J. AWWA 88, 88 (2001)
  • [6] J. Nawrocki, U. Raczyk-StanisŁawiak, J. Świetlik, A. Olejnik, M.J. Sroka, Water Res. 44, 1863 (2010)[Crossref]
  • [7] A. Kabata-Pendias, H. Pendias, Biogeochemia pierwiastków śladowych - Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements (PWN, Warszawa, 1999) (In Polish)
  • [8] O.I. Asubiojo, N.A. Nkono, A.O. Ogunsua, A.F. Oluwole, N.I. Ward, O.A. Akanle, N.M. Spyrou, Sci. Total Environ. 208, 1 (1997)[Crossref]
  • [9] R.G. Wuilloud, J.A. Salonia, J.A. Gásquez, R.A. Olsina, L.D. Martinez, Anal. Chim. Acta 420, 73 (2000)[Crossref]
  • [10] W. Seńczuk, Toksykologia - Toxicology, (PZWL, Warszawa, 2002) (In Polish)
  • [11] A. Misund, B. Frengstad, U. Siewers, C. Reimann, Sci. Total Environ. 243–244, 21 (1999)
  • [12] J.L.M. De Boer, W. Verweij, T. Van Der Velde-Koerts, W. Mennes, Water Res. 30, 190 (1996)[Crossref]
  • [13] J.S. Becker, H.J. Dietze, Spectrochim. Acta B 53, 1475 (1998)[Crossref]
  • [14] M. JabŁońska, S. Szopa, R. Skorek, Monografia Komitetu Inżynierii Środowiska PAN (PAN, Lublin, 2009) (In Polish) vol. 58
  • [15] V. Simeonov, J. Einax, S. Tsakovski, J. Kraf, Cent. Eur. J. Chem. 3, 1(2005)[Crossref]
  • [16] Th. Spanos, V. Simeonov S. Tsakovski, D. Thiokas, Cent. Eur. J. Chem. 2, 402 (2004)[Crossref]
  • [17] P. Praus, Cent. Eur. J. Chem. 3, 731 (2005)[Crossref]
  • [18] A. Astel, S. Tsakovski, P. Barbieri, V. Simeonov, Water Res. 41, 4566 (2007)[Crossref]
  • [19] V. Simeonov, J.A. Stratis, C. Samara, G. Zachariadis, D. Voutsa, A. Anthemidis, M. Sofoniou, Th. Kouimtzis, Water Res. 37, 4119 (2003)[Crossref]
  • [20] P. Simeonova, V. Simeonov, G. Andreev, Cent. Eur. J. Chem. 2, 121 (2003)[Crossref]
  • [21] Y. Zhang, F. Guo, W. Meng, X.Q. Wang, Environ. Monit. Assess. 152, 105 (2009)[Crossref]
  • [22] S.M. Yidana, D. Ophori, B. Banoeng-Yakubo, J. Environ. Manage. 86, 80 (2008)[Crossref]
  • [23] K. Kuś, P. Grajper, G. Ścieranka, J. Wyczarska-Kokot, A. Zakrzewska, Ochr. Śr. 3, 29 (2003) (In Polish)
  • [24] I. Stanimirova, M. PoŁowniak, R. Skorek, A. Kita, E. John, F. Buhl, B. Walczak, Talanta 74, 153 (2007)[Crossref]
  • [25] PN 27888:1999 (EN 27888:1993, ISO 7888:1985), Water quality - Determination of electrical conductivity (ISBN: 83-236-3217-0)
  • [26] PN-90/C-04540/01 (1990) Water and waste water - Test for pH, acidity and alkalinity - Electrometric pH determination of water and waste water with specific conductivity 10 μS/cm and higher (ISBN: 83-7001-837-8)
  • [27] PN-ISO 6059:1999, Water quality - Determination of the sum of calcium and magnesium - EDTA titrimetric method (ISBN: 83-236-3489-0)
  • [28] PN-EN ISO 9963-1:2001, Water quality - Determination of alkalinity - Part 1: Determination of total and composite alkalinity (ISBN: 83-236-6327-0)
  • [29] PN-EN ISO 17294-2:2006, Water quality - Application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) - Part 2: Determination of 62 elements (ISBN: 83-243-8945-8)
  • [30] S. Ostasiewicz, Z. Rusnak, U. Siedlecka, Statystyka. Elementy teorii i zadania (Statistics. Elements of theory and jobs), 3rd edition (Economical Academy, WrocŁaw, 1998) (In Polish).
  • [31] A. Łomnicki, Wprowadzenie do statystyki dla przyrodników - Introduction to statistics for scientists (PWN, Warszawa, 1995), (in Polish).
  • [32] W.H. Kruskal, W.A. Wallis, J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 47, 583 (1952)[Crossref]
  • [33] P.H. Ramsey, Critical Values for Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation, J. St. Ed. 14, 245 (1989)[Crossref]
  • [34] W. Volk, Statystyka stosowana dla inżynierów - Applied statistics for engineers (WNT, Warszawa, 1973) (In Polish).
  • [35] I. Stanimirova, B. Walczak, D.L. Massart, Anal. Chim. Acta 545, 1 (2005)[Crossref]
  • [36] W. Hardle, L. Simar, Applied Multivariate Statistical Analysis (Springer Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, 2003)
  • [37] R. Reyment, K.G. Joreskog, Applied Factor Analysis in the Natural Sciences (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1996)
  • [38] P. Gemperline, Practical Guide to Chemometrics, 2nd edition (CRC Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL, 2006)[Crossref]
  • [39] World Health Organization, Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, 3rd edition (WHO, Geneva, 2008)
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.