Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results


2007 | 5 | 4 | 923-930

Article title

Energy up-conversion in dilute polyfluorene solutions


Title variants

Languages of publication



Poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) shows highly efficient blue emission with photo excitation occurring between 340–400 nm. Here we show that PFO can in dilute solution emit at a wavelength well below that at which it is being exited. This, we propose is related to an energy transfer from conjugated parts of the polymer chain into more localised states which then emit at a lower wavelength. These localised states can be considered as defects in the conjugation of the polymer or as chain ends. These may produce quasi monomer or quasi dimer species within the chain, which will have a HOMO-LUMO gap of higher energy than the conjugated polymer. These then fluoresce at the lower wavelength; essentially causing, by energy transfer, a process of energy up-conversion. [...]










Physical description


1 - 12 - 2007
1 - 12 - 2007


  • The Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Thomas Graham Building, University of Strathclyde, G1, 1XL, Glasgow, UK
  • The Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Thomas Graham Building, University of Strathclyde, G1, 1XL, Glasgow, UK
  • The Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Thomas Graham Building, University of Strathclyde, G1, 1XL, Glasgow, UK
  • The Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Thomas Graham Building, University of Strathclyde, G1, 1XL, Glasgow, UK


  • [1] J.H. Burroughes, D.D.C. Bradley, A.R. Brown, R.N. Marks, K. Mackay, R.H. Friend, P.L. Burn and A.B. Holmes: “Light emitting-diodes based on conjugated polymers”, Nature, Vol. 347, (1990), pp. 539–541. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/347539a0[Crossref]
  • [2] M. Gross, D.C. Müller, H.G. Nothofer, U. Scherf, D. Neher, C. Bräuchle and K. Meerholz: “Improving the performance of doped π-conjugated polymers for use in organic light-emitting diodes”, Nature, Vol. 405, (2000), pp. 661–665. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35015037[Crossref]
  • [3] Y. Ohmori, M. Uchida, K. Muro and K. Yoshino: “Blue electroluminescent diodes utilizing poly(alkylfluorene)”, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 30, (1991), pp. L1941–L1943. http://dx.doi.org/10.1143/JJAP.30.L1941[Crossref]
  • [4] E. Gu, H.X. Zhang, H.D. Sun, M.D. Dawson, A.R. Mackintosh, A.J. C. Kuehne, R.A. Pethrick, C. Belton and D.D.C. Bradley: “Hybrid inorganic/organic microstructured light-emitting diodes produced using photocurable polymer blends”, Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 90, (2007), art. 031116. [WoS]
  • [5] C. Chi, C. Im and G. Wegner: “Lifetime determination of fluorescence and phosphorescence of a series of oligofluorenes”, J. Chem. Phys., Vol. 124, (2006), art. 024907.
  • [6] E. Somma, B. Loppinet, C. Chi, G. Fytas and G. Wegner: “Static and dynamic solution properties of monodisperse oligofluorenes”, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., Vol. 8, (2006), pp. 2773–2778. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b601531j[Crossref]
  • [7] V. Marcon, N. van der Vegt, G. Wegner and G. Raos: “Modeling of molecular packing and conformation in oligofluorenes”, J. Phys. Chem. B, Vol. 110, (2006), pp. 5253–5261. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp056858y[Crossref]
  • [8] M.A. Stevens, C. Silva, D.M. Russell and R.H. Friend: “Exciton dissociation mechanisms in the polymeric semiconductors poly.9,9-dioctylfluorene and poly.9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole”, Phys. Rev. B, Vol. v, (2001), art. 165213. [Crossref]
  • [9] S. Baluschev, T. Mteva, V. Yakutin, G. Nelles, A Yasuda and G. Wegner: “Upconversion fluorescence: Noncoherent excitation by sunlight”, Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 97, (2006), art. 143903.
  • [10] G. Klaerner and R.D. Miller: “Polyfluorene derivatives: Effective conjugation length from well defined oligomers”, Macromolecules, Vol. 31, (1998), pp. 2007–2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma971073e[Crossref]
  • [11] L.-O. Pålsson, C.S. Wang, D.L. Russell, A.P. Monkman, M.R. Bryce, G. Rumbles and I.D.W. Samuel: “Photophysics of a fluorene co-polymer in solution and films”, Chem. Phys., Vol. 279, (2002), pp. 229–237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0301-0104(02)00407-X[Crossref]
  • [12] G. Fytas, H.G. Nothofer, U. Scherf, D. Vlassopoulos and G. Meier: “Structure and dynamics of nondilute polyfluorene solutions”, Macromolecules, Vol. 35, (2002), pp. 481–488. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma011416f[Crossref]
  • [13] J. Duhamel, A. Yekta, M.A, Winnik, T.C. Jao, M.K. Mishra and I.D. Rubin: “A blob model to study polymer-chain dynamics in solution”, J. Phys. Chem., Vol. 97, (1993), pp. 13708–13712. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/j100153a046[Crossref]
  • [14] W. Chunwaschirasiri, B. Tanto, D.L. Huber and M.J. Winokur: “Chain conformations and photoluminescence of poly(di-n-octylfluorene)”, Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 94, (2005), art. 107402.
  • [15] M. Annia, M.E. Caruso, S. Lattante and R. Cingolani: “The role of excitons’ quasiequilibrium in the temperature dependence of the poly,9,9-dioctylfluorene tphase photoluminescence”, J. Chem. Phys., Vol. 124, (2006), art. 134707.
  • [16] O. Worsfold, J. Hill, S.Y. Heriot, A.M. Fox, D.D.C. Bradley and T.H. Richardson: “Langmuir and Langmui-Blodgett (LB) film properties of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene)”, Mater. Sci. Eng. C, Vol. 23, (2003), pp. 541–544.
  • [17] O. J. Korovyanko and Z.V. Vardeny: “Film morphology and ultrafast photoexcitation dynamics in polyfluorene”, Chem. Phys. Lett., Vol. 356, (2002), pp. 361–367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2614(02)00349-4[Crossref]
  • [18] X. Gong, D. Moses, A.J. Heeger and S. Xiao: “Excitation energy transfer from polyfluorene to fluorene defects”, Synth. Met., Vol. 141, (2004), pp. 17–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.synthmet.2003.06.003[Crossref]
  • [19] J. Frahn, B. Karakaya, A. Schäfer and A.D. Schlüter: “Suzuki polycondensation: “On catalyst derived phosphorus incorporation and reproducibility of molecular weights”, Tetrahedron, Vol. 53 (1997), pp. 15459–15467. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0040-4020(97)00973-3[Crossref]
  • [20] T.P. Nguyen: “Defect analysis in organic semiconductors”, Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process, Vol. 9, (2006), pp. 198–203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mssp.2006.01.060[Crossref]

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.