On the determination of lead in wine by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry
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The parameters of analytical procedures developed for direct ETAAS determination of Pb in wine are discussed. Atomic absorption spectrometers based on transversal and longitudinal Zeeman effect, wall and integrated platform atomization with two main approaches: (i) measurements in the presence of modifier and (ii) measurements without using any modifier are compared. The optimal temperature programs are defined according to the pre-treatment and atomization curves constructed in the presence of different types of wines. For all investigated instrumental systems, 1:1 dilution of wine sample with 0.2 mol L−1 HNO3 is recommended. Matrix interferences observed, call for standard addition calibration method for Pb quantification in wines. The detection limit (3σ) achieved for wine diluted in the ratio of 1:1 varied from 0.8 to 1.9 μg L−1 depending on the instrument used. The relative standard deviation for the concentration range of 10 to 80 μg L−1 Pb in wine is typically between 4–8%. The accuracy of the analytical procedures recommended was confirmed by comparing the results obtained with those found for wine samples previously digested with HNO3-H2O2 mixture, by added/found method and by parallel analysis using different instruments. A total of 66 wine samples from different regions of Macedonia were analyzed. [...]
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