Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2013 | 27 | 1 | 25-32

Article title

Electric Muscle Activity During Manual Muscle Testing of the Shoulder


Title variants

Languages of publication



Introduction: This is a research study, supported by a literature review, which gave the principles of anatomy, biomechanics, physiological and patological conditions of shoulder functioning. Correct muscle activity is essential for proper functioning of the shoulder. Electromyography is a method which enables to record and analize the signs of muscle activity. This tool is useful for veryfing the manual muscle tests, typically used for clinical examination of the shoulder. The aim of this study was to investigate electric activation of 8 shoulder muscles while manual testing the resistive external rotation in scapulohumeral joint. Material and methods: Fourteen healthy subjects (n=14) were manually tested for isometric resistance. Three tests were used, each with different level of abduction, respectively: the m. infraspinatus test (1): 0 degrees, non-specific biceps brachii tendon test (2): 45 degrees, resistive test for external rotation in the position of maximal internal rotation (3): 90 degrees. The superficial electromyography device used in the study was Noraxon: TeleMyo System 2400T, with MyoResearch XP software. It collected data about the muscle electric activity during all the tests. Statistic data mining was made using Statistica programme. Peak amplitude values were collected and comparison of three tests was made. Results: High supraspinatus activation could be observed together with high coactivation of other shoulder muscles. Also, inter-individual dispersion of muscle activation values was high. Conclusions: Surface electromyography alone appeared to be insufficient method for assesing manual muscle tests, although it may give suggestions for testing and therapeutic exercises. Results of electromyography need to be confirmed by conducting large group studies, and large scatter of muscle activation values has to be taken account.









Physical description


1 - 3 - 2013
12 - 4 - 2014


  • Studenckie Koło Naukowe Biomechaniki, Wydział Rehabilitacji, Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego Józefa Piłsudskiego w Warszawie
  • Wydział Rehabilitacji, Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego Józefa Piłsudskiego w Warszawie


  • 1. Antony NT, Keir PJ. Effects of posture, movement and hand load on shoulder muscle activity. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2010;20(2):191-8.[Crossref][WoS]
  • 2. Allison GT, Morris SL, Lay B. Feedforward responses of transversus abdominis are directionally specific and act asymmetrically: implications for core stability theories. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2008;38(5):228-37.[WoS][Crossref]
  • 3. Kon Y, Nishinaka N, Gamada K, et al. The influence of handheld weight on the scapulohumeral rhythm. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2008;17(6):943-6.[PubMed][WoS]
  • 4. Kapandji AI. The physiology of the joints. Vol. 1: the upper limb. Churchill Livingstone Elsevier Limited; 2007.
  • 5. Beasley Vidal LS, McMahon PJ, Vidal AF. Urazy stawu ramiennego w sporcie, urazy ścięgien i mięśni. In: McMahon PJ, editor. Medycyna sportowa: Współczesne metody diagnostyki i leczenia. Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL; 2009.p. 173-187.
  • 6. Cuthbert SC, Goodheart GJ Jr. On the reliability and validity of manual muscle testing: a literature review. Chiropr Osteopat 2007;15:4.[Crossref]
  • 7. Jepsen J i wsp. Manual strength testing in 14 upper limb muscles: a study of inter-rater reliability. Acta Orthop Scand 2004;75(4):442-8.
  • 8. Rider LG, Koziol D, Giannini EH et al. Validation of manual muscle testing and a subset of eight muscles for adult and juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2010;62(4):465-72.[WoS]
  • 9. Cibulka MT, Weissenborn D, Donham M. A new manual muscle test for assessing the entire trapezius muscle. Physiother Theory Pract [posted online] 2012 Sep 7; Available from: URL: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/full/10.3109/09593985.2012.718856[Crossref]
  • 10. Michener LA, Boardman ND, Pidcoe PE et al. Scapular muscle tests in subjects with shoulder pain and functional loss: reliability and construct validity. Phys Ther 2005;85(11):1128-38.[PubMed]
  • 11. Odom CJ, Taylor AB, Hurd CE et al. Measurement of scapular asymmetry and assessment of shoulder dysfunction using the Lateral Scapular Slide Test: a reliability and validity study. Phys Ther 2001;81(2):799-809.
  • 12. Kelly BT, Kadrmas WR, Kirkendall DT, et al. Optimal normalization tests for shoulder muscle activation: an electromyographic study. J Orthop Res 1996;14(4):647-53.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • 13. Boren K, Conrey C, Le Coguic J et al. Electromyographic analysis of gluteus medius and gluteus maximus during rehabilitation exercises. Int J Sports Phys Ther 2011;6(3):206-23.[PubMed]
  • 14. Frère J, Hug F. Between-subject variability of muscle synergies during a complex motor skill. Front Comput Neurosci 2012;6:99.[PubMed][WoS]
  • 15. McGill SM, Karpowicz A, Fenwick CM. Ballistic abdominal exercises: muscle activation patterns during three activities along the stability/mobility continuum. J Strength Cond Res 2009;23(3):898-905.[WoS][Crossref][PubMed]
  • 16. Marshall P, Murphy B. The validity and reliability of surface EMG to assess the neuromuscular response of the abdominal muscles to rapid limb movement. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2003;13(5):477-89.[Crossref]
  • 17. Illyés A, Kiss RM. Shoulder muscle activity during pushing, pulling, elevation and overhead throw. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2005;15(3):282-9.[Crossref]
  • 18. Wattanaprakornkul D, Halaki M, Boettcher C et al. A comprehensive analysis of muscle recruitment patterns during shoulder flexion: An electromyographic study. Clin Anat 2011;24(5):619-26.[Crossref][PubMed][WoS]
  • 19. Backup K. Testy kliniczne w badaniu kości, stawów i mięśni. Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL; 2004.
  • 20. Bitter NL, Clisby EF, Jones MA, et al. Relative contributions of infraspinatus and deltoid during external rotation in healthy shoulders. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2007;16(5):563-8.[PubMed][WoS]
  • 21. Clisby EF, Bitter NL, Sandow MJ Relative contributions of the infraspinatus and deltoid during external rotation in patients with symptomatic subacromial impingement. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2008;17 Suppl 1:87-92.[WoS]
  • 22. Jin S, Ning X, Mirka GA. An algorithm for defining the onset and cessation of the flexion-relaxation phenomenon in the low back musculature. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2012;22(3):376-82.[Crossref][WoS]
  • 23. Jaskólska A, Kisiel K, Brzenczek W, Jaskólski A. EMG and MMG of synergists and antagonists during relaxation at three joint angles. Eur J Appl Physiol 2003;90(1-2):58-68.[Crossref][PubMed]
  • 24. Escamilla RF, Andrews JR. Shoulder muscle recruitment patterns and related biomechanics during upper extremity sports. Sports Med 2009;39(7):569-90.[Crossref][WoS][PubMed]
  • 25. David G, Magarey ME, Jones MA, et al. EMG and strength correlates of selected shoulder muscles during rotations of the glenohumeral joint. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2010; 15(2):95-102.
  • 26. Labriola JE, Lee TQ, Debski RE, et al. Stability and instability of the glenohumeral joint: the role of shoulder muscles. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2005; 14(1 Suppl S):32S-38S.[PubMed]
  • 27. Kelly BT, Kadrmas WR, Speer KP. The manual muscle examination for rotator cuff strength. An electromyographic investigation. Am J Sports Med 1996; 24(5):581-8.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • 28. Myers JB, Pasquale MR, Laudner KG, et al. On-the-Field Resistance-Tubing Exercises for Throwers: An Electromyographic Analysis. J Athl Train 2005; 40(1): 15-22.[PubMed]
  • 29. Uhl TL, Carver TJ, Mattacola CG, et al. Shoulder musculature activation during upper extremity weight-bearing exercise. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2003; 33(3):109-17.[Crossref]
  • 30. Borsa PA, Laudner KG, Sauers EL. Mobility and stability adaptations in the shoulder of the overhead athlete: a theoretical and evidence-based perspective. Sports Med 2008, 38(1):17-36.[Crossref][PubMed][WoS]

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.