Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2011 | 25 | 2 | 19-25

Article title

Analiza Parametrów Czasowo-Przestrzennych Chodu Osób Starszych w Aspekcie Treningu / Elders’ Gait Analysis Using Spatiotemporal Parameters in Aspects of Training


Title variants

Languages of publication



Introduction. The involutive changes of humans’ gait are multifactoral and they have negative influence on its quality. Among other symptoms, decrease in muscle strength and range of motion are the most frequently mentioned. These factors have an impact on some spatiotemporal gait parameters, such as decrease in gait velocity and step length and increase in step width. Study Aim. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of two different forms of training on spatiotemporal parameters of elders’ gait.Material. Fifty-nine participants joined the project. Medical examination and stress test were conducted to exclude any health contraindications. Participants were divided into two groups: versatile training (TW), and training in low positions (TN). Fourteen participants in each group finished the research protocol. Method. FDM Zebris platform was used to register the spatiotemporal parameters of subjects’ gait. Their task was to walk through it with their natural velocity three times. The training protocol took 12 weeks, twice a week meetings lasting 45 minutes. The main difference between the training groups was that the exercises of locomotion and in high positions were excluded in the TN group. Statistical analysis was conducted with Statistica software. Results. As a result of TW group, six parameters changed statistically significantly. step length of the right lower extremity step length of the right lower extremity (as a % of leg lenght) and step time of the left and right lower extremity, stride time and cadence. The other parameters showed different tendencies, but their changes cannot be assigned to the training protocol. TN subjects did not show any significant changes in the parameters considered. Conclusions. Changes of gaits’ quality are multifactor therefore they require future investigation. They need to be identified in order to be modified in the course of training or therapy. The exercise selection should include structurally similar tasks to the ones’ they desire to develop.










Physical description


1 - 06 - 2011
27 - 08 - 2013


  • Wydział Rehabilitacji, Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego Józefa Piłsudskiego w Warszawie
  • Wydział Rehabilitacji, Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego Józefa Piłsudskiego w Warszawie
  • Wydział Rehabilitacji, Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego Józefa Piłsudskiego w Warszawie
  • Wydział Turystyki i Rekreacji, Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego Józefa Piłsudskiego w Warszawie


  • 1. Honeycutt PH, Ramsey P. Factors Contributing to falls in elderly men living in the community. Geriatric Nursing 2002; 5: 23: 250-257.[Crossref]
  • 2. Ostchega Y, Dillon CF, Lindle R, Carroll M, Hurley BF. Isokinetic leg muscle strength in older Americans and its relationship to a standardized walk test: data from the national health and nutrition examination survey 1999-2000J. Am. Geriat. Soc. 2004; 52: 6: 977-982.
  • 3. Ronsky JL, Nigg BM, Fisher V. Correlation between physical activity and the gait characteristics and ankle joint ß exibility of the elderly. Clinical Biomechanics 1995; 10: 1: 41-49.
  • 4. Scarborough D, Krebs DE, Harris BA. Quadriceps muscle strength and dynamic stability in elderly persons. Gait & Posture 1999; 10 (1): 10-20.[Crossref]
  • 5. DeVita P, Hortobagyi T. Age causes a redistribution of joint torques and powers during gait. Journal of Applied Physiology 2000; 88 (5): 1804-1811.
  • 6. Lord SR, Sturnieks DL. The physiology of falling: assessment and prevention strategies for older people. J Sci Med Sport 2005; 8: 1: 35-42.
  • 7. DiBenedetto M, Innes KE, Taylor AG, Rodeheaver PF, Boxer JA, Wright Kerrigan C. Effect of a Gentle Iyengar Yoga Program on Gait in the Elderly: An Exploratory Study. J Arch Phys Med Rehabil 86, 2005; 1830-1837.
  • 8. Kerrigan DC, Todd MK, Della Croce U, Lipsitz LA, Collins JJ. Biomechanical gait alterations independent of speed in the healthy elderly: evidence for specific limiting impairments. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1998; 79: 317-322.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • 9. Kerrigan DC, Lee LW, Collins JJ, Riley PO, Lipsitz LA. Reduced hip extension during walking: healthy elderly and fallers versus young adults. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001; 82: 26-30.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • 10. Schrager MA i wsp. The effects of age on medio-lateral stability during normal and narrow base walking. Gait & Posture 2008; 28: 466-471.[WoS]
  • 11. Potic B, Davidovic M, Milosevic D, Mihajlovic G. Gait as a marker for dementia. Poster Session
  • 12. Larson L, Bergmann TF. Taking on the fall: The etiology and prevention of falls in the elderly. Clinical Chiropractic 2008; 11: 148-154.[Crossref]
  • 13. Żak M. Ocena ryzyka upadkow u osób starszych i możliwości prewencji. Gerontologia Polska 2000; 8: 18-21.
  • 14. Hollman JH i wsp. Age-related differences in spatiotemporal markers of gait stability during dual task walking. Gait & Posture 26 (2007); 113-119.[WoS][Crossref]
  • 15. Rubenstein LZ, Josephson KR, Robbins AS. Falls in the nursing home. Ann Intern Med 1994; 121: 6: 442-451.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • 16. Rubenstein LZ. Falls in older people: epidemiology, risk factors and strategies for prevention. Age and Ageing 2006; 35: S2: ii37-ii41.[Crossref]
  • 17. Guralnik JM, LaCroix AZ, Abbott RD, Berkman LF, SatterÞ eld S, Evans DA, Wallace RB. Maintaining mobility in late life. I Demographic characteristics and chronic conditions. Am J Epidemiology 1993; 137(8): 845-57.
  • 18. Jansson S, Derlund SS. A new treatment programme to improve balance in elderly people-an evaluation of an individually tailored home-based exercise programme in Þ ve elderly women with a feeling of unsteadiness. Disability and Rehabilitation 2004; 26: 24: 1431-1443.[Crossref]
  • 19. Winter DA, Patla AE, Frank JS, Walt SE. Biomechanical walking pattern changes in the Þ t and healthy elderly. Phys Ther 1990; 70: 340-347.
  • 20. Prince F i wsp. Gait in the elderly. Gait & Posture 1997; 5: 128-135.[Crossref]
  • 21. Thies SB, James K. Richardson JK, Ashton-Miller JA. Effects of surface irregularity and lighting on step variability during gait: A study in healthy young and older women. Gait & Posture 2005; 22: 26-31.[Crossref]
  • 22. Kerrigan DC, Xenopoulos-Oddsson A, Sullivan MJ, Lelas JL, Riley PO. Effect of a hip ß exor-stretching program on gait in the elderly. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 84(1):1-6.
  • 23. Watt JR, Jackson K, Franz JR, Dicharry J, Della Croce U, Kerrigan DC. Effect of a supervised hip ß exor-stretching program on gait in healthy elders. Gait & Posture 2009; 30: 26.
  • 24. Malatesta D, Simar D, Saad H.B, Préfaut C, Caillaud C. Effect of an overground walking training on gait performance in healthy 65- to 80-year-olds. Experimental Gerontology 2010; 45: 427-434.[PubMed][Crossref][WoS]
  • 25. Krebs DE, Jette AM, Assmann SF. Moderate Exercise Improves Gait Stability in Disabled Elders. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1998; 12: 79.
  • 26. Persch LA, Ugrinowitsch C, Pereira G, Rodacki ALF. Strength training improves fall-related gait kinematics in the elderly: A randomized controlled trial. Clinical Biomechanics 2009; 24: 819-825.[WoS][Crossref]
  • 27. Rodacki ALF, Souza RM, Ugrinowitsch C, Cristopoliski F, Fowler NE. Transient effects of stretching exercises on gait parameters of elderly women. Manual Therapy 2009; 14: 167-172.[Crossref][WoS][PubMed]
  • 28. Kemoun G, Thoumie P, Boisson D, Guieu JD. Ankle dorsiß exion delay can predict falls in the elderly. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 2002; 34: 278-283.[Crossref]
  • 29. Alexander NB. Gait disorders in older adults. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc 1996; 44: 434-451.
  • 30. Buchner DM, Cress ME, Esselman PC, Margherita AJ, de Lateur BJ, Campbell AJ, Wagner E.H. Factors associated with changes in gait speed in older adults. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 1996; 51: 297-302.[Crossref]
  • 31. Gabell A, Nayak USL. The effect of age and variability in gait. Journal of Gerontology 1984; 39: 662-666.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • 32. Mercer JA, Bates BT, Dufek JS, Hreljac A. Characteristics of shock attenuation during fatigued running. J. Sport. Sci. 2003; 21: 11: 911-999.
  • 33. Brandell BR. Functional roles of the calf and vastus muscles in locomotion. Am. J. Phys. Med. 1977; 56: 2: 59-74.[PubMed]
  • 34. Chen IH, Kuo KN, Andriacchi TP. The inß uence of walking speed on mechanical joint power during gait. Gait Posture 1997; 6: 171-176.[Crossref]
  • 35. Kwon IS, Oldaker S, Schrager M, Talbot LA, Fozard JL, Metter EJ. Relationship between muscle strength and the time taken to complete a standardized walk-turn-walk test. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 2001; 56: 9: 398- 404.[Crossref]
  • 36. Pavel M, Hagler S, Smith BA. Modeling choice of cadence and step size by elder Walkers. Posters/Parkinsonism and Related Disorders 2010; S11-S86.
  • 37. Wall JC, Hogan DB, Tumbull GI, Fox RA. The kinematics of idiopathic gait disorder. A comparison with healthy young and elderly females. Scand J Rehabil Med 1991; 23: 159-164.
  • 38. Tinetti ME, Mendes de Leon CF, Doucette JT, Baker DI. Fear of falling and fall-related efÞ cacy in relationship to functioning among community-living elders. J Gerontol 1994; 49: 140-147.[Crossref]
  • 39. Imms FJ, Edholm OG. Studies of gait and mobility in the elderly. Age Ageing 1981; 10: 147-156.[Crossref][PubMed]

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.