Method of Nutrition of Patients After Major Oral and Craniofacial Surgery and its Effects on BMI Changes During a Half-Year Period of Observation
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Injuries, deformations and tumours of the facial part of skull, oral cavity or neck often hamper or prevent normal food consumption. After surgery of these structures food intake may be decreased due to postoperative wounds, pain, swelling and trismus. The aim of the study was to evaluate nutritional state of patients treated surgically in the craniomaxillo- facial surgery department and determination of factors affecting body weight changes after surgery. Material and methods. The study included 83 patients operated between 2008 and 2010 in the department of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery, due to: maxillo-facial defects (30 individuals), malignant tumours (23 individuals), injuries (19 individuals), benign tumours (11 individuals). The study was prospective. A method of nutrition during the observation period and BMI (Body Mass Index) value on the first day of hospitalization and after 10, 60, 180 days after hospital admission were considered. For statistical analysis of results a general regression analysis was used. Results. Significant reduction of BMI was observed in all patients after 10 and 60 days from the start of hospitalization. A significant increase of this parameter was observed between Day 60 and Day 180 of observation, however the BMI values after 180 days were still significantly lower than the baseline. A dependency between these changes and a cause of hospitalization as well as nutrition during and after the stay at hospital has been shown. Conclusions. There is a distinct relationship between the worsening of nutritional state after craniofacial surgery and nutrition during and after hospitalization, and therefore special attention should be paid to the issue of nutrition during this period
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