Dental erosion is described as an irreversible loss of dental hard tissue resulting from exposure to non-bacterial acids or chelating substances. It may be caused by exogenous or endogenous factors. In the former case, food, drink, as well as the environment might be sources of acids; in the latter, acids flowing into the oral cavity from the stomach and duodenum.Exogenous dental erosive lesions are localized mainly on the labial surfaces of the anterior teeth of the maxilla, while the endogenous ones can be found on the palatal and masticatory surfaces of the maxilla and the masticatory and buccal surfaces of the mandible.Reduced saliva secretion, which occurs in a number of diseases, also influences dental erosion, while erosion-causing factors and aggressive tooth brushing immediately after consuming acidic food increases the range and depth of erosion cavities.The consequence of dental erosion is teeth hypersensitivity, which results from exposure of dental tubules and of the pulp leading to the loss of tooth vitality and decrease in occlusal height.Treatment of exogenous dental erosion consists in changing nutritional and hygienic habits. In the case of endogenous erosion, however, the therapy should address mainly an underlying disease. Worn teeth surfaces should be restored with conservatory or/and prosthetic methods.In the context of an increasing prevalence of dental erosion in the population, it is necessary to develop and implement prophylactic measures, including broadly understood health education on the risk factors, preventive activities, and possibilities of diagnosis and therapy.