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2014 | 16 | 1 | 81-85

Article title

Effect of sulphur added to phosphate rock on solubility and phytoavailability of phosphorus


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For ground phosphate rock (GPR) to be applied as phosphorus fertilizer, the availability of phosphorus to plants needs to be improved. One possible way to achieve this is by adding sulphur, which will accelerate decomposition of phosphate in soil owing to the activation of microbiological processes. This study involved granulation of fertilizers composed of phosphate and sulphur mixed at 38:1 and 10:1 ratios and two analogous fertilizer variants but with added molasses as a source of organic carbon for sulphur bacteria. A small-scale industrial installation for production of multi-component fertilizers was used to make granular fertilizer by the compaction method. The granular fertilizers were then tested in an agricultural experiment. The fertilizer in which the phosphate to sulphur ratio was 10:1 produced better effects. Addition of molasses to the fertilizers did not improve their fertilizing capacity









Physical description


1 - 03 - 2014
25 - 03 - 2014


  • Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute
  • Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - State Research Institute
  • Wrocław University of Technology
  • Wrocław University of Technology


  • 1. Zapata, F. & Roy, R.N. (2004). Use of phosphate rocks for sustainable agriculture. FAO Fert. Plant Nutr. Bul. 13. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
  • 2. Stockdale, E.A., Watson, C.A. & Edwards, A.C. (2006). Phosphate rock: Using biological processes to increase its effectiveness as a fertiliser. International Fertiliser Society Proceedings 592, York UK. pp. 24.
  • 3. Vassilev, N. & Vassileva, M. (2003). Biotechnological solubilization of rock phosphate on media containing agro-industrial wastes. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 61, 435-440. DOI: 10.1007/s00253-003-1318-3.[Crossref]
  • 4. Korzeniowska, J. & Stanisławska-Glubiak, E. (2011). New trends in using rock phosphates in agriculture. Post. Nauk Rol. 3, 57-66 (in Polish).
  • 5. Skut, J., Hoffmann, K. & Hoffmann, J. (2012). Temperature and moisture influence on the curing process of PAPR-type fertilizer products. Pol. J. Chem. Tech. 14, 77-82 DOI: 10.2478/v10026-012-0088-z.[Crossref]
  • 6. Rajan, S.S.S. (1983). Effect of sulphur content of phosphate rock/sulphur granules on the availability of phosphate to plants. Fert. Res. 4, 287-296.[Crossref]
  • 7. Evans, J., McDonald, L. & Price, A. (2006). Application of reactive phosphate rock and sulphur fertilisers to enhance the availability of soil phosphate in organic farming. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst. 75, 233-246. DOI: 10.1007/s10705-006-9030-1.[Crossref]
  • 8. Evans, J. & Price, A. (2009). Infl uence of rates of reactive phosphate rock and sulphur on potentially available phosphorous in organically managed soils in the south-eastern near-Mediterranean cropping region of Australia. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst. 84, 105-118. DOI: 10.1007/s10705-008-9230-y.[Crossref][WoS]
  • 9. Stamford, N.P., Santos, P.R., Santos, C.E.S., Freitas, A.D.S., Dias, S.H.L. & Lira, Jr., M.A. (2007). Agronomic effectiveness of biofertilizers with phosphate rock, sulphur and Acidithiobacillus for yam bean grown on Brazilian tableland acidic soil.Bioresour. Technol. 98, 1311-1318.[WoS][Crossref]
  • 10. Hoffmann, J., Korzeniowska, J., Stanisławska-Glubiak, E. & Hoffmann, K. (2012). Increasing efficiency of phosphate rock by sulfur addition. Part 1. Technological issues regarding manufacturing of phosphate rock-sulfur fertilizers. Przem. Chem. 5, 745-748 (in Polish).
  • 11. Singh, C.P. & Amberger, A. (1991). Solubilization and availability of phosphorus during decomposition of rock phosphate enriched straw and urine. Bio. Ag. Hort. 7, 261-269.[Crossref]
  • 12. Polish Standard PN-M-94008.
  • 13. Polish Standard PN-C-04501:1971.
  • 14. Regulation (EC) No 2003/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 2003 relating to fertilizers (Text with EEA relevance), Official Journal of the European Union, L 304, 122.
  • 15. Korzeniowska, J., Stanisławska-Glubiak, E., Hoffmann, J. & Igras, J. (2012). Increasing the efficiency of phosphate rock by sulfur addition. Part 3. Agronomic assessment of phosphate-sulfur fertilizers by using plant indicators. Przem. Chem. 5, 796-800 (in Polish).
  • 16. Stanisławska-Glubiak, E., Korzeniowska, J., Hoffmann, J. & Kantek, K. (2012). Increasing the efficiency of phosphate rock by sulfur addition. Part 2. The impact of phosphate-sulfur fertilizers on the environment. Przem. Chem. 5, 1000-1005 (in Polish).
  • 17. Stanisławska-Glubiak, E., Korzeniowska, J. & Hoffmann, J. (2012). Increasing efficiency of phosphate rock by sulfur addition. Part 4. Impact of sulfur addition on concentration of microelements in plants. Przem.Chem., 91, 1006-1009 (in Polish).
  • 18. Hignett, T. (1967). Fertilizer Manual. Muscle Shoals, USA: International Fertilizer Development Center.
  • 19. Ghosal, P.K. & Chakraborty, T. (2012). Comparative Solubility Study of Four Phosphatic Fertilizers in Different Solvents and the Effect of Soil. Res. Environ. 2(4), 175-179. DOI: 10.5923/j.re.20120204.07.[Crossref]
  • 20. Asomaning, S.K., Abekoe, M.K. & Owusu-Bennoah, E. (2006). Phosphate rock dissolution and availability in some soils of semi-deciduous rainforest zone of Ghana, West Afr. J. Appl. Ecol. 10(1).
  • 21. Jones, J.B.Jr, Wolf, B. & Mills, H.A. (1991). Plant analysis handbook. Micro-Macro. Publishing Inc. Athens, Georgia, USA

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