This study deals with experimental thermodynamic and rheological characterization of kaolin. Water sorption isotherms of kaolin were determined for three temperatures (30, 50 and 70°C). Desorption isotherms were fitted by using five models (GAB, BET, Henderson modified, Adam and Shove, Peleg) among the most used ones in literature. The GAB model was found to be the most suitable for describing the relationship between equilibrium moisture content and water activity for the whole range of temperature (30-70°C) and relative humidity(0-100%). Desorption enthalpy and entropy were determined. The desorption enthalpy decreases with increasing moisture content. The density and the shrinkage of the material and the Young’s modulus variations as a function of moisture content were determined experimentally. The Young modulus varies between 0.1 MPa and 14 MPa. The viscoelastic parameters of kaolin were also determined by using a series of Prony.