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2014 | 64 | 1 | 29-40

Article title

Effects of Marginalization on School Physical Education Programs: a Literature Review


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The purpose of this research was to examine the causes of marginalization in Physical Education (PE) and to examine how PE teachers can counter the effects of this marginalization. Therefore, a recent literature review was conducted for the purpose of investigating the effects of marginalization. Four studies addressed feelings of burnout among PE teachers, including isolation, lack of equipment, and lack of space. Three research articles addressed communication with parents to encourage their support of PE. These three articles examined the use of PE websites as a tool to stay in constant communication with parents. In addition, one research study looked at how PE assessments needed to be consistent with other content areas and aligned with state and national standards. Moreover, one research article addressed the causes of parents' misconceptions of their children's PE programs. The final research article was a case study that related to how one teacher was able to change the parents' misconceptions about the PE programs. Results from this literature review study indicated that PE programs are being marginalized, yet there are ways for PE teachers to combat this issue.









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30 - 12 - 2014


  • Kendall Central School, USA.
  • Qatar University, Qatar
  • Hitit University, Turkey
  • Bilgi University, Turkey
  • Glenville State College, USA
  • Amasya University, Turkey


  • Brouwers, A., Tomic, W., & Boluijt, H. (2011). Job demands, job control, social support and self-efficacy beliefs as determinants of burnout among physical education teachers. Europe's Journal of Psychology, (7)1, 17-39.
  • Carlson, K.B., & Henninger, M.L. (2011). Strategies to increase the value of physical educators in k-12 schools: Physical educators can halt the marginalization through a quality curriculum, assessment, continued professional development, and advocacy. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 82(2), 17-39.
  • Curtner-Smith, M.D. (2001). The occupational socialization of a first-year physical education teacher with a teaching orientation. Sport, Education and Society, 6(1), 81-105.
  • Hardman, K. (2008). Physical education in schools: A global perspective. Kinesiology, 40(1), 5-28.
  • Hamner, D.M. (2002). Building bridges: The Allyn & Bacon student guide to service-learning. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
  • Hill, G.M., Tucker, M., & Hannon, J. (2010). An evaluation of secondary physical education websites. Physical Educator, 67(3), 114-127.
  • Konukman, F., Agbuga, B., Erdogan, S., Zorba, E., Demirhan, G., Yilmaz, I. (2010). Teacher-coach role conflict in school-based physical education in USA: a literature review and suggestions for the future. Physical Education & Sport, 54(2), 59-64.
  • Konukman, F., & Schneider, R. (2012). The Role of Academic Service Learning in Physical Edcation Teacher Education: Serving for The Community in 21st Century. STRATEGIES, 25(7), 15-18.
  • Koruklu, N., Feyzioglu, B., Ozenoglu-Kiremit, H., & Aladag, E. (2012). Teachers' burnout levels in terms of some variables. Educational Science: Theory & Practice, 12(3), 1823-1830.
  • Kougioumtzis, K., Patriksson, G., & Strahlman, O. (2011). Physical educations teachers' professionalization: A review of occupational power and professional control. European physical education review, 17(1), 111-129.
  • Lux, K., & McCullick, B.A. (2011). How one exceptional teacher navigated her working environments as the teacher of a marginal subject. Journal of Teaching Physical Education, 3, 358-374.
  • Michael, S., Dittus, P., & Epstein, J. (2007). Family and community involvement in schools: Results from the school health policies and program study 2006. Journal of School Health, 77(8), 567-587.
  • Schneider, R.C., Konukman, F., & Stier, F.W. (2010). Survival Strategies for Physical Educators During Recessionary Times. The Physical Educator. 67(4), 170-177.
  • Sheehy, D.A. (2006). Parents' perceptions of their child's 5th grade physical education program. Physical Educator, 63(1), 30-37.
  • Sheehy, D.A. (2011). Addressing parents' perceptions in the marginalization of physical education: The influence of parents- over policymakers, other parents, and their children's attitudes - cannot be ignored. The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 82(7), 42.
  • Stacey, K., Rice, D.L., & Langer. G. (1997). Academic Service Learning Faculty Development Manual. Eastern Michigan University, Office of Academic Service Learning. Ypsilanti, MI.
  • Stevens, C.A. (2008). Service Learning for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation: A step by step guide.Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
  • Taheri, M., Forouzandeh, E., & Seddighi, Z. (2012). Comparison of burnout and job stress between physical education employees and industrial workers. Annals of Biological Research, 3(3), 1242-1246.
  • Wilkinson, C., & Schneck, H. (2003). The effects of a school physical education and health web site on parental knowledge of the program. Physical Educator, 60(3), 162-168.

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