Sport plays an important role in modern societies, including those in Europe. However, individual countries differ in terms of their citizens’ participation in universally accessible sport. In some societies, the percentage of people who pursue different sports is high, while in other countries it is insignificant. What are the reasons behind such differences? What variables are crucial to accounting for these differences? How has Polish society changed in this regard? Theoretical and empirical analyses show that people in Poland are becoming increasingly active when it comes to sport. In terms of taking part in sport, Polish society is starting to catch up with other European societies. The decisive role in the process is played by: a) social factors (education and affluence), b) the ideals and values that dominate the local culture (physical appearance, kinetic pleasures, and positive emotions), and c) the efficiency and adequacy of the physical education system in schools (innovation, the use of cyberspace, and efforts aimed at addressing social needs). If these three areas of socialization - society, culture and physical education in schools - reach a high level of convergence and if fewer variables hinder the process than at present, people in Poland will become as physically active as other societies in the West.